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s 

598.29 
Nllrabd 
1992 



**#D. Skaar's 
Montana bird 
d is tr ittut ion 



f. u. ^Kaars 



Montana Bird 
Distribution 



Revised by: 
Dwight Bergeron 
Cedron Jones 
David L. Center 
Daniel Sullivan 



Fourth Edition 
January 1992 




Montana Natural Heritage Program 
Special Publication No. 2 



JArJ 



..;r 



MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

S 598.29 N 1 1 mbd 1 992 R 598.29 SKAAR c. 1 
P.O. Skaar's Montana bird distribution / 






3 0864 00078244 4 



This publication is a cooperative effort of the following organizations: 

AN 1 tW 

Ml 

(Support provided by the Nofigame Tax Checkoff Fund) 

Montana Audubon Council 



W 1 6|f|7 

P 2 7 2002 



Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks 



Montana Natural Heritage Program 



Copies of this publication are $6.00 and can be obtained from Regional Offices of the 
Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks; the Montana Audubon Council and 
most local Audubon chapters; select bookstores in Montana; or from the Montana 
Natural Heritage Program (mail orders, please add $1 for shipping). 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 
State Library Building 
1515 East Sixth Avenue 
Helena, MT 59620 



This document should be cited as follows: 

Bergeron, D., C. Jones, D. L. Center, and D. Sullivan. 1992. P. D. Skaar's Montana 

Bird Distribution, Fourth Edition. Special Publication No. 2. Montana Natural 

Heritage Program, Helena. 116 pp. 



Cover drawing of Belted Kingfisher by Ted Nordhagen ©1991 

©1992 Montana Natural Heritage Program 



p. D. SKAAR'S 

MONTANA BIRD DISTRIBUTION 

Fourth Edition 



Revised By: 

Dwight Bergeron 

800 Glendale 
Helena, MT 59601 f 

Cedron Jones , ., ^ 

940 Wilder Avenue 
Helena, MT 59601 

David L. Center 
1515 East Sixth Avenue • 
Helena, MT 59620 

Daniel Sullivan 

851 Silverette 

Helena, MT 59601 



AUG ^0 1992 

MONTANA STATE LIBRARY 

1515 E. 6th AVE. 
HELENA, MONTANA 59620 



Special Publication No. 2 

Montana Natural Heritage Program 

1992 










A 


B 


C 


D 



Thix map irmrl miiy serve as a niiidefor quickly idauifying ^.-mral hcalions wilbiii liililntigx ami iiaarlcr 
latilangs. \Vc rvcommcnd thai it be used in conjunclion wilh the official Monlatia Higliwuy Ship. For ran bird 
nporls and siK>iliiifp. near ibc {aliliinn bordcm, pkasi ii.w appropriate BLXt 1:100.000 \cale inap\ or VSDA Forest 
Service maps. 

Map courtesy of Montana Diparinunl of Transportation and Montana Travel. All rights rvsencd. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Biographical Note - P. D. Skaar ii 

Dedication - Larry S. Thompson ill 

Preface iv 

Acknowledgements v 

Introduction 1 

Physiography of Montana 1 

Latilongs as mapping units 1 

Quarter Latilongs 2 

Taxonomic changes and subspecies 3 

Other Changes 3 

Evaluation of records 4 

Species with Special Status 4 

Neotropical Migratory Species 5 

How to read maps and interpret symbols 6 

Submission of new records 8 

Distribution maps 9 

Bibliography 107 

Contributors 108 

APPENDICES 

A -- List of TES and SI Species in Montana 109 

B -- Neotropical Migratory Bird Species in Montana 110, 111 

C -- Hypothetical Species List 112 

D -- Breeding Status Code Definitions 113 

E -- Rare Bird Report Form 114 

F -- Quarter Latilong Reporting Form 115 

Index 116, 117 

Notes 118 

Insert -- Montana Highway Map with QLL Units 




aifywK aencral locatwns Killiin laliloni;s ami qiHirUr 

on wilh Ihc ofHaal Monu.mi //.,i,'/,..<;.v Map. For rare hmi 



with llic dffi' 
use apiiropriute 



■; BLM 1:1110,(1110 scale maps or USDA Forest 



and Montana Travel, .-ill riahls reserxed. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Biographical Note - P. D. Skaar ii 

Dedication - Larry S. Thompson iii 

Preface iv 

Acknowledgements v 

Introduction 1 

Physiography of Montana 1 

Latilongs as mapping units 1 

Quarter Latilongs 2 

Taxonomic changes and subspecies 3 

Other Changes 3 

Evaluation of records 4 

Species with Special Status 4 

Neotropical Migratory Species 5 

How to read maps and interpret symbols 6 

Submission of new records 8 

Distribution maps 9 

Bibliography 107 

Contributors 108 

APPENDICES 

A -- List of TES and SI Species in Montana 109 

B -- Neotropical Migratory Bird Species in Montana 110, 111 

C -- Hypothetical Species List 112 

D -- Breeding Status Code Definitions 113 

E -- Rare Bird Report Form 114 

F -- Quarter Latilong Reporting Form 115 

Index 116, 117 

Notes 118 

Insert -- Montana Highway Map with QLL Units 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 




Palmer David Skaar 

No one person has done more to further the study of Montana birds than Dave Skaar 
(1923-1983). Dr. Skaar came to Montana in 1957 to join the faculty of Montana State 
College (now MSU). He was widely respected as a microbial geneticist at that time, 
and during his career he wrote extensively in that field. He also founded and directed 
the Genetics Institute at MSU, and served for four years as editor of the Proceedings 
of the Montana Academy of Sciences. Dave's involvement in the study of Montana bird 
distribution made him well-known and respected throughout the state. His enthusiasm 
was contagious, and his patience and modesty were exemplary. He was not one to 
discourage or belittle the amateur and his words were always encouraging, never 
demeaning. 



Dave pioneered the "latilong" concept in distributional studies. His definitive Birds of 
the Bozeman Latilong was published in 1969 and was a model regional bird account. 
In 1975, Dave published the first edition of Montana Bird Distribution. The impact of 
this book was tremendous. It motivated and mobilized amateurs and professionals 
across the state, and resulted in careful ornithological scrutiny of vast areas of Montana 
that had never before been studied. The Fourth Edition of Montana Bird Distribution 
is one of Dave's ongoing legacies. Future editions will continue as a direct result of Dr. 
Skaar's inspiration and visionary efforts. ^ 



DEDICATION 





1 n 


""^■r -%ite /iP^^^H 




^p^ ^HiH^'^^ 



Larry Steven Thompson 



Larry Thompson (1949-1988) was born in Kalispell and dedicated his life to the 
exploration and study of Montana's rich natural heritage. Larry attended Montana State 
University and received a Masters Degree from Washington State University, completing 
a thesis on the biogeographical relationships of bird populations found on Montana's 
prairie mountain ranges. For 1 2 years, beginning in the mid-1 970s, Larry worked at the 
Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, involved in the oversight 
of facility siting. In 1985, Larry became the first manager of the Natural Resource 
Information System where he began the job of cataloging Montana's natural resources. 

Accomplished as he was in his work, it seemed to be his time away from work that 
touched the most people. He wrote extensively, publishing scientific and popular 
articles, including one of the Montana Geographic Series, Montana Explorers. He co- 
authored the Third Edition of Montana Bird Distribution. He was a natural musician and 
a gifted artist. (Some of his drawings illustrate this edition.) Above all, Larry was a 
naturalist. He was interested in, curious about and saw beauty in everything - big, 
small, obscure, animal, plant or rock - it didn't matter. No one could be around Larry 
without seeing the world differently and having a new appreciation for things commonly 
passed by. As a person and a naturalist, Larry's contributions to the quality of life and 
the knowledge and conservation of Montana's natural resources were remarkable. We 
respectfully, and with great affection, dedicate this edition to him. 



PREFACE 

The Fourth Edition of P. D. Skaar's Montana Bird Distribution is the latest in a series 
of contributions to Montana ornithology. It was Dr. Skaar who pioneered the use of 
latilongs as a mapping unit for bird distribution and biogeographical studies. Since the 
publication of Skaar's first edition (1975), several other states and vertebrate groups 
have been mapped using the latilong system. In this edition we have begun recording 
bird distribution in quarter latilong units in an attempt to more accurately display each 
species' spatial distribution. 

This edition begins an effort to provide a visual display of current bird distribution in 
Montana. It is a transition from previous editions, where all distribution data from the 
earliest recorded sightings to the most current were represented, to subsequent 
editions, where only data since the last edition will be represented. We believe this will 
document changes in bird distribution, drawing attention to contractions or expansions 
which, we hope, will result in efforts to determine the cause for these changes. 

Although historical data will not be displayed in future editions, these data will not be 
lost. Presently, all data represented in previous editions as well as this edition have 
been entered into a computer database. These records contain more data than is 
represented by the symbol on the distribution maps and often include multiple 
sightings per latilong. The bird distribution database contains over 25,000 individual 
records. It is housed and maintained at the Natural Heritage Program in Helena and 
will be updated continuously as additional data are received. The database will be 
available for use by anyone interested in the distribution of Montana birds. 

We plan to publish the Fifth Edition in 1995 with subsequent editions every 5 years 
thereafter. The success of this effort, however, will depend on the dedication of the 
birding public, amateur and professional, in submitting observations. We are no longer 
interested only in new latilong records and rare sightings. It is critical that contributors 
record and report sightings on all species for the appropriate quarter latilongs during 
each revision period. 

These changes are not cast in concrete. We want to know what you think of them, 
and so we have included a Response Form at the back of the book. Please tear it out, 
fill it in and return it to us. 

A few people, with some time and a little money, compiled this publication. In a 
greater sense, this is a product of hundreds, perhaps thousands, of individuals who 
made an effort and took the time to write down their observations and report them. 
These are people who see the beauty, grace, and diversity of birds, but understand 
that the conservation of bird populations and the environment upon which they depend 
requires awareness and knowledge. This publication is a tribute to those contributors 
and our thanks are extended to them. 

Helena, Mont. 
January, 1992 



IV 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Dozens of contributors submitted the thousands of recent records to make this 
update possible. We are most grateful to those contributors who provided recent 
sightings (see p. 108). Centrum data are from the Third Edition. The U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service's Breeding Bird Survey and the databases of the Montana Natural 
Heritage Program provided additional sources of information. 

A steering committee was responsible for the overall production and fundraising for 
this Fourth Edition. Members include Janet Ellis, David Center, George Holton, Cedron 
Jones, Deborah Richie, and Dan Sullivan, all of Helena. Dwight Bergeron was 
employed to compile data and assist in production. Special thanks to Dwight, Cedron, 
and Dan for their long and dedicated efforts in data entry, troubleshooting, and keeping 
things moving. 

A verification committee was established to review rare bird sightings and provide 
advice and comment on a number of issues in the production of this edition. The 
verification committee is comprised of Chuck Carlson (Chair, Ft. Peck), Helen Carlson 
(Billings), Dan Casey (Kalispell), Dr. Bob Eng (Bozeman), Bebe FitzGerald (Billings), 
Harriet Marble (Chester), Terry McEneaney (Gardiner), Fritz Prellwitz (Malta), and Dr. 
Phil Wright (Missoula). We thank them for their continuing efforts and dedication to a 
better understanding of Montana birds. 

Jim Senkler ably provided us with the design and programming of the database. We 
thank the Natural Resource Information System and the Montana State Library for staff 
time and computers. Don Skaar and Dennis Flath provided access to many post-Third 
Edition records and commented on the draft. Dan Sullivan obtained and compiled the 
data from the Breeding Bird Surveys. Margaret Beer provided technical support and 
tolerance for Dwight and Cedron to be on her computers and in her space for much 
of the past 6 months. Several individuals provided helpful suggestions and advice in 
planning and review of the project including Kristi DuBois, Shannon Heath, Sue 
Jackson, Cary Lund, and Don Stoecker. We thank them all. 

Financial support for the project came with the cooperation of the following individuals 
and organizations: Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (Dennis Flath & 
Deborah Richie), USDI Bureau of Land Management (Bob Haburchak), USDA Forest 
Service (Alan Christensen and Bill Ruediger), Stillwater Mining (Bruce Gilbert), Western 
Energy Co. (Bruce Waage), WESTECH (Dean Culwell and Pat Farmer), Last Chance 
Audubon (Helena), Yellowstone Valley Audubon (Billings), Bitterroot Audubon 
(Hamilton), Five Valleys Audubon (Missoula), William and Lee Ballard, the Montana 
Audubon Council, and Michael T. Schwitters. 



Introduction 

Birders in Montana have recorded the presence of 357 species over the past four 
decades. There are 259 species that regularly breed in the state. The total number 
of wintering species is 177. An additional 12 species are of hypothetical occurrence 
(see p. 112), including several species that are expanding their ranges and will likely 
make their way into a future edition of the Montana Bird Distribution. 

Physiography of Montana 

Montana is characterized by 3 physiographic divisions: the Rocky Mountains of the 
western third, dominated by high rugged mountain ranges dissected with broad 
valleys; the central plains where island mountain ranges rise out of the grassy plains; 
and the eastern half in the Northern Great Plains with rolling grass-covered plains 
carved by major rivers. 

Vastly different climate and vegetation occur in Montana. Continental air masses with 
cold, dry winters and hot summers dominate most of the state. Northwest Montana is 
more influenced by Pacific moist air with moderate temperatures. The plains range 
between -40°F(-40°C) and over 1 00°F (38°C), with annual precipitation between 8 inches 
(20 cm) and 15 inches (40 cm). Droughts can be frequent and severe. The Rocky 
Mountains are somewhat cooler and more moist. Annual precipitation generally 
increases with elevation, much of it as snow. 

These factors, combined with Montana's geographic position among the Great Basin, 
Great Plains, and Northern Rockies, contribute to the great diversity and abundance 
of birds in our state. Land-use practices have also changed the abundance and 
distribution of our avifauna. Some species (such as the starling) tend to thrive in 
human-altered landscapes, expanding their range and numbers. Other species (such 
as the piping plover) require specialized natural habitat and may become increasingly 
rare or threatened by habitat changes or encroachment of competitors. 

As we view the distribution of Montana birds over time, we will undoubtedly witness 
the introduction and expansion of some species and the continued decline of others, 
particularly those that are more specialized. Montana is a large, sparsely-populated 
state. It is difficult to conceive of high-intensity efforts to atlas birds as in other states. 
Until the financial and human resources become available, the application of coarse- 
scale distribution units such as latilongs will continue to be the most feasible. By 
refining our efforts to the quarter latilong, we will be recording the dynamic phenomena 
of statewide bird distribution to the best of our current abilities. As additional data are 
recorded by quarter latilong, we expect this effort to more effectively project species' 
distribution. 

Latilongs as Mapping Units 

Latilongs are rectangular units formed by successive parallels of latitude and 
meridians of longitude, each at one degree intervals (see map on back cover). They 
form a grid pattern across Montana that includes all or parts of 49 latilongs. The 
average dimensions of each latilong are 47 miles (76 km) wide and 69 miles (1 1 1 km) 

1 



long. This represents an average area of 3200 sq. miles (8436 sq. km) per latilong. 
Latilongs along the Canadian border are 5.4 percent smaller than those along the 
Wyoming border. 

These nearly-uniform units form a global grid across middle latitudes that provide 
conformity between states and nations. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Breeding 
Bird Survey is based on this latilong grid. So successful was Skaar's early use of the 
latilong as a biogeographic aid (Skaar 1969, 1980), that several neighboring states 
have used latilongs for mapping bird distribution (Stephens and Sturts 1991; Kingery 
1987; Oakleaf et al. 1982) and other vertebrate groups (Thompson 1982; Findholt et 
al. 1981). 

The map on the back cover depicts the 49 latilongs and 185 quarter latilongs in 
Montana. This includes L48 and L49 which cover small portions of southwest Montana 
previously excluded from the first three editions. Also enclosed in this edition is a 
latilong map that has been superimposed over a state highway map. This is an extra 
aid that will permit accurate location of the quarter latilong (QLL) where an observation 
is made. For finer resolution when sightings are near boundaries and for reporting rare 
birds, please refer to the Forest Service, BLM, and USGS topographic maps to 
accurately determine the correct QLL location. 

Quarter Latilongs 

The most obvious change from the Third Edition is the use of quarter latilongs (QLL). 
QLL units are created by dividing each latilong unit into four quarters at the 30 minute 
degree mark between each degree of latitude and longitude. Each QLL cell retains the 
number of the latilong cell with the addition of a letter (A,B,C, or D) ordered left to right 
(Fig. 1). Thus, latilong 25 is now broken into 4 QLLs: 25A, 25B, 25C, 25D (see p.7). 
Each of the latilongs has the Third Edition data listed in the center (Example "X" Fig. 
1). All of the new (post-Third Edition) data are presented in the quarter latilong 
positions. 



Figure 1. Quarter Latilong Letter Code Sequence. 



A 



C 



-X- 



B 



D 



We recognize that the maps displayed in this edition are "busy" and may be confusing 
at first glance. However, a sufficient amount of new data did not exist to adequately 
represent the distribution of most birds in Montana. The Third Edition data are retained 
in the center of the latilong so that there is continuity between the old and new formats. 
In the Fifth Edition (1995) only the quarter latilong values, based on data submitted 
since Third Edition data, will be displayed. In the past, contributors have focused on 



the rare species and new latilong records. Conversion to quarter latilongs and a 
commitment to continually update Montana Bird Distribution (MBD) requires a 
fundamental change in the way Montana birders list and submit their observations. For 
the effort to succeed, all species, common and rare alike, must be recorded for each 
QLL during each revision period. 

Taxonomic changes and subspecies 

All species names and taxonomic revisions follow the American Ornithologist's Union 
(AOU) Checklist of North American Birds, 6th edition (AGU 1983), as amended by the 
35th through the 38th supplements (AOU 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991). The AOU has 
made several taxonomic revisions since the MBD Third Edition. These changes are 
reflected in the species lists and maps, where appropriate. 

In consultation with the verification committee, we identified 5 species for which 
enhanced data collection for subspecies distribution is warranted. In some cases this 
is to provide better information for future taxonomic assignments. In others, it is simply 
of interest to maintain the geographic distinctions between taxa. The species names 
and maps do not display these subspecific ranges, but we are recording and 
maintaining records in the databases at the subspecific level. We request that 
contributors submit records for these species at the subspecies level, whenever 
possible. 

Species for which information is kept on subspecies, races, or forms include: 
Northern Flicker Northern Oriole 

Red-shafted Flicker Bullock's Oriole 

Yellow-shafted Flicker Baltimore Oriole 

Yellow-rumped Warbler Rosy Finch 

Audubon's Warbler Gray-crowned Rosy Finch 

Myrtle Warbler Gray-headed (Hepburns's) Rosy Finch 

Dark-eyed Junco Black Rosy Finch 

Slate-colored Junco 

Montana ("Oregon Junco") 
. Pink-sided Junco 

White-winged Junco 

Gray-headed Junco 

Other Changes 

The first arrival dates for species were not included. There was no additional 
information to update the Third Edition. We have the capacity to record and manage 
information on arrival and departure dates for all species. We need several 
contributors to record and submit this information from various regions in the state. 
Please contact the editors at the Montana Natural Heritage Program for further 
information. 

We have eliminated the "S" and "s" symbols for species documented by a specimen 
or photograph. Specimen data and photograph records will be entered into the 
database. Files for photographs, slides, or copies have been established. 



Dr. P. L Wright of the verification committee will compile a list of specimens, including 
the vertebrate collections where they are stored. This list will be available and updated 
as additions to the collections occur. 

The symbols "?" (questionable sightings) and "I" (uncertain latilong location) found in 
the Third Edition are not used in this edition. The steering and verification committees 
will not accept records in these categories so the designations are dropped from this 
and future editions. 

Evaluation of Records 

A verification committee was established in June 1991. The committee established 
rules for conducting business and evaluating records. Criteria for suitable 
documentation were reviewed and a voting procedure established. The verification 
committee is responsible for accepting records of rare birds (less than 20 sightings) 
and sightings of birds outside their normal range. Contributors with observations in 
these categories are asked to submit a rare bird report describing their sighting 
(Appendix E). No rare or out-of-range records will be accepted without committee 
approval. 

Species with Special Status 

Any special status for each species is indicated by the letters and symbols which 
follow the common and scientific name. 

n= Rare birds (fewer than 20 verified sightings) are identified by the letter "n" 
followed by the number of sightings. The most recent sighting is listed with location 
and date. 

TES We have identified those species that are considered threatened, endangered, 
or sensitive in Montana or throughout their range by the symbol TES. Species 
assigned to this category are any one of the following: federally recognized 
endangered, threatened, or candidate species for listing under the Endangered 
Species Act; U.S. Forest Service sensitive species, as assigned by the Regional 
Forester; or species of special concern, as recognized by the f\/lontana Natural Heritage 
Program and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. A list of species in each 
of these categories is found in Appendix A. It is important to note that all of these lists 
are subject to change. For current information, contact one of the local offices of the 
US Fish & Wildlife Service; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks; US Forest 
Service; or Montana Natural Heritage Program. 

SI Another group of species was identified as being poorly known in the state or 

as having unique breeding habits that warrant further study. There is a need for 
additional information on the distribution, breeding habits, and status of these "species 
needing additional information," or SI. 

Contributors submitting sightings of TES and SI species are requested to submit 
detailed information. This information should include the date of observation, specific 
location, number of individuals, and details on nesting, if observed. This is an 



important aspect of maintaining statewide information on species that are either more 
vulnerable, less visible, or experiencing range or population decline. Rare bird 
sightings are requested to be submitted on the rare bird report form (Appendix E). 

Neotropical Migratory Species 

There are many birds that breed or migrate through f\/lontana and spend their winter 
in the "neotropics" (Central and South America). Recent evidence suggests that 
populations of some of these bird species may be declining. Thus, in 1990 the 
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation proposed a major initiative for the conservation 
of migratory land birds that breed in North America and winter in neotropical countries. 
Several major federal land management agencies, conservation groups, state fish and 
wildlife agencies, and academics have joined to develop the Neotropical Migratory Bird 
Program. This collaborative effort attempts to determine the causes for declines in our 
migratory bird populations. Part of this effort involves identification of species 
vulnerable to declines from either of the two primary causes suggested: fragmentation 
of breeding ground habitat in the U.S. and Canada, and loss of wintering habitat in 
Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. 

A major initiative for research, monitoring, and management of migratory landbirds, 
has been established at the national and local levels. We have listed the Neotropical 
Migratory Bird species known to occur in Montana (Appendix B). The species included 
in the program are both long- and short-distance migrants. Wintering zones for 
species are identified and nicely handled in the "Conservation" subheading of The 
Birder's Handbook (Ehrlich et al. 1988). Additional information and activities are being 
developed by the local Montana Steering Committee of the Neotropical Migratory Bird 
Program, including a handbook, monitoring activities, study of habitat relationships, and 
international partnerships. For additional information on local activities, contact the 
Neotropical Migratory Bird Program Coordinator, Wildlife and Fisheries, U.S. Forest 
Service Northern Region, P.O. Box 7669, Missoula, MT 59807. 



How to read maps and interpret symbols 

Each species is listed by common and scientific name in taxonomic order. Order and 
family names are inserted to aid in grouping the species. A common name is placed 
in the top outside margin of each right hand page for the predominant group of 
species found on that page. 

Information on the species' status is provided on the lines beneath some of the 
names. Symbols and their definitions are explained below. Further information is 
provided on page 4. See Appendix A (p.109) for a list of species. 

n= Number of documented records (for species with fewer than 20 verified 
records). 

TES Species considered threatened, endangered, or sensitive. 

SI Additional information requested for these species. 

introduced - Not native to North America or a native North American species 
transplanted to Montana. 

The distribution maps are shaped in the general outline of Montana. Each 
rectangular block represents one latilong. Each symbol within the block represents the 
highest documented status for the species in each latilong or quarter latilong. All of 
the Third Edition data are presented in the center of the latilong block. The quarter 
latilong data are presented in the corners of the latilong block and represent 
observations submitted since 1985. The symbols used are as follows (see p. 11 3, 
Appendix D, for complete definitions): 

B Direct evidence of breeding (nest or dependent young 

observed). 

b Indirect or circumstantial evidence of breeding. 

t Observed, no evidence of breeding. 

Absent or no observations submitted. 

The winter distribution of species is recorded between December 15 and February 
15. Winter maps display data in latilong blocks only. However, post-Third Edition data 
are recorded by QLL in the database. The symbols and their definitions are: 

W Overwintering. Regular sightings during the winter period. 

Overwintering not yet documented, but species observed at 
least once between Dec. 15 and Feb. 15. 

Absent or no verified winter records submitted. 



w 



Example: In the map below, Third Edition data show a verified sighting of an American 
Flamingo in Latilong 25 by the presence of a "t" in the center of latilong block number 
25. There is a "t" in the "A" quarter of the latilong block meaning that a sighting also 
occurred since 1985. Only 2 sightings have been recorded (n=2). The most recent 
sighting was in 1988 near Florence along the Bitterroot River. As designated by the 
symbol, "SI", more detailed information is requested if there are further sightings. In this 
case, because there are fewer than 20 sightings, verification by the verification 
committee is required before the report will be accepted. A rare bird report should be 
submitted. The winter map lists no winter (Dec 15 - Feb 15) sightings. 



American Flamingo 

Gardenus effigis 

QLL 25A; April 1, 1988 
Bitterroot River, Florence 
n=2; SI 



t 
t - - - 



Submission of New Records 

Contributors are asked to submit records in one of two formats. 

1. Quarter Latilong Bird Lists: Ttnis is a list of bird species observed within a quarter 
latllong (QLL). If there were several birding trips within a single QLL the sightings from 
each trip should be summarized into a single master list for that QLL. For each species 
recorded, list the highest status observed ("B" greater than "b" greater than "t") and then 
the most recent observation date. Make one list per QLL in taxonomic (Field Guide) 
order. For full-page form, see p.115. 

In areas where you live or that you frequent each year we would like a single master 
QLL list annually. If the status is listed as "B", briefly state the criteria used (i.e., nest, 
dependent young, etc.). A brief location description is requested (i.e.. Bean Lake, Long 
Pine Hills, Chinook, Hwy 200, 10 miles west of Simms, etc.). 

2. Single Observations (rare, out of range, and SI species) 

These sightings require thorough, detailed descriptions. It will be best to use the 
Rare Bird Report Form found in Appendix E, however, any report format with sufficient 
information will do. Fill in the information only for items that you actually observed. Do 
not fill in items you felt you should have seen but did not. It is the exception where all 
possible criteria are seen. Complete the report as soon as possible following the 
observation while your impressions are fresh. Please submit any drawings or 
photographs; they will become part of the permanent record unless return is requested. 
All rare and out-of-range sightings are submitted to the verification committee. They 
can only judge your sighting based on your report. "It looked just like the picture in the 
book" won't pass. 

Please submit individual records and individual QLL lists as soon after the 
observations as possible. For QLLs that you visit more than once, send in a master 
QLL list annually. New records will be added to the Montana Bird Distribution database 
on a regular schedule. This will allow for periodic updates and queries on species or 
selected geographic areas. It will also greatly facilitate producing the next edition. 

We plan development of a computer software program that will permit data entry of 
field sightings by observers with access to personal computers. This will permit 
observers to send in their observations via diskette. Use of this method of 
recordkeeping will significantly reduce data entry time at the central database. We 
intend to design the program so that observers will be able to access and display their 
own data. All observers with access to personal computers are encouraged to use this 
method when it becomes available. 

Mail all records to: 

Montana Bird Distribution Update 
Montana Natural Heritage Program 
1515 East Sixth Avenue 
Helena, MT 59620 



8 



□ GAVIIFORMES ■ Gaviidae 

Red-throated Loon 

Gavia stellata 

QLL 10D; May, 1991; Ft. Peck 
n=7 

--W 

Pacific Loon 

Gavia pacifica 

(formerly combined with Arctic Loon) 
LL 3; Sept, 25, 1976; Lake McDonald 
n=2 

Common Loon 

Gavia immer 

TES 

WWw W-- 

wU 

— w 

--W 

Yellow-billed Loon 

Gavia adamsii 

QLL 17D; Jan. 5, 1987; 

Giant Springs, Great Falls 
n=1 

w 



Loons 



t 

t 

t 



t 



B B 

B 
B B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B B 

B 
B B 




t 


t 


- 


- 


b 

t 


b 

t 


- 


t 


b 


B 
B 
B 


B t 

B 
B B 


t 

t 




- 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 

t 


- 


t 




t 

t 


t 
B 


t t 

t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 






- 






t 

t 


B 

t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








t t 




















PODICIPEDIFORMES ■ Podicipedidae 



Pied-billed Grebe 

Podilymbus podiceps 



WUw W-- 

ww 

W-ww 

--wW-w 

Homed Grebe 

Podiceps auritus 

wUw 

WW--W 

Red-necked Grebe 

Podiceps grisegena 

Uww 

-w 

Eared Grebe 

Podiceps nigricollis 

-WW 

-W--W 

--WW 







b 






B 














B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 




b 


B 


b 








B 


B 


t 








t 




b B 


B 






B 










t 


B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
b b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 
b 


B 


b 


B 








t 


t 


















B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 






t t 




b 


t 


















~ 


t 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 
b 


B 


B 


B 










B B 






















b 


B 





















t b 




















B 


B 

t 


B 
B 


b 


~ 


t 


b 


t 


B 


B 
t 


t 


B 


t 






b 












t 






t 


B 
t 


b 


B 
b t 


B 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 






t 






















t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b 


t 


t 


b 






- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


b 








- 


t 



















b 


t b 




















B 


B 
b B 


b 
b B 


t 
b 


~ 


t 


■ 


t 


t 


t 

t 


~ 


- 




b 


B 


t B 












t 






t 


B 
b 


B 
b t 


B 
b B 


t 


~ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






B 


t 


t 


















t 


6 
B 


B 
t 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 


- 










b 


t 


















~ 


~ 


t 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 


~ 


* 


~ 










t 





































t b 


b 


















B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


B 




B 


B 


b 


b 


b b 






B 


t 












B 












t 






t 


B 
b 


B 
B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 

t 


B 


B 


t 
t 








t 


t 








t 










B 


b 


B 

t 


t 
t 


B 
t t 


B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


b 

t 






B 




b 




















b 


b 


b 


t 
t 


B 


t 


- 


t 


B 


B 








B B 






















B 


B 

















10 



Grebes, Pelican 



Western Grebe 

A echmoph or us occiden talis 



www 

w 

— w 

Clark's Grebe 

Aechmophorus clarkii 

(forrnerly combined with Western Grebe) 
QLL 38A; Aug., 1991; Harrison Lake 
n=16 







t 




















B 


B 


t 


B 


t 


t 


t 


b 


B 


t 


- 


B 


t 


b 


t 




t 


t 








t 








b 




B 












t 






b 


B 
b 


b 


B 


t 


t 


b 


B 


b 


t 


t 


t 






t 




t 


















t 


t 


t 
t 


B 
t t 


B 
t t 


t 


t 


b 


- 


t 


b 
t 






t 




b 






t 














t 


b 


B 


t 


b 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 






t 


B B 






















B 


B 

















- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 
b 


- 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 




t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















PELECANIFORMES ■ Pelecanidae 



American White Pelican 

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos 

TES 



- 


t 


t 
t 


B 
B 


t 
t 


t 


t 
t 


t 


B 
B 


t 
t 


t 


B 
B 


- 


t 
t 


t 


t B 

B 
b t 


t 
t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t t 
t 


t 


t 
t 
t 




t 
t 


t 


t 


t 

B 
B 


t 

t 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






- 


t 


b 
t 
t 


t 


t 
b 


t 
t 
t 


t 
t 


t 
t 


- 


t 






t 
t 


b t 
B 












« 





11 



Phalacrocoraci dae 



Double-crested Cormorant 

Phalacrocorax auritus 

SI 



t 


t 
t 


t 
t 

t 


B 
t B 


B 
B 


b 


b 


t 

t 
B 


B 

B 


t 
t 


t 


t 
B 
B 


t 


B 
B 
B 


t 
t 


B 
B 
t t 


B 
B 


t 


t 


B 


B 
B 


B B 
B 

t 


t 


t 
t 




B 

t 
B 


- 


t 
t 


t 

B 
B B 


t 
t 


t 


t 
t 


t 
B 
6 


B 


B 


t 
t 






- 


B 


B 
t 


t 
t 

t 


B 
b 


t B 
B 


t 


B 
B 


t 


B 
t 






b 
B 


B 
t 

















CICONIIFORMES ■ Ardeidae 



American Bittern 

Botaurus lentiginosus 



Least Bittern 

Ixobrychus exilis 

LL 10; June 3, 1976; Ft. Peck 
n=3 



Great Blue Heron 

Ardea herodias 

SI 



WW--W ■ 

WWw — M 

WWWW W-- 

- www- www-- 
-w 







b 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


B 


t 


b 


b 


B 


t 


t 


B 


b 


b 


t b 


b 






b 






t 












t b 


















~ 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


b 
















t 












b 


b 


b 


t 


* 


~ 


b 


t 


t 


t 


- 




B 


b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


b 


b 






b 


B 






















b 


B 

















b - - - - b 



12 



B 

B 
b B 


B 
B 


t b 

B 
t b 


B 
b 


B 


B 
B 


B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


b 


B 
B 


B 
B 


6 
B 
B 


t 
B 
t t 


t B 

B 
b B 


t 
B 
B 


B 


B 
B 


B 

B 


B 
B t 


B 
B 


t 


B 
B 
B B 




B 
B 
B 


t 
B 


t t 

6 
B B 


B B 
B 

B B 


B 
B 
b 


B 


B 
B t 


B 
B B 


B 
B B 


B B 
B 


B 




B 


t t 
b 


B B 
B 
b 


B t 
B 


t t 

B 
B t 


t B 

B 
t 


B B 
B 


t 
B 


t 
B 
t t 


B 


B 






b 
B 


B B 
B 

















Herons 



Great Egret 

Casmerodius a/bus 

QLL 25B; June 4, 1987; 

Lee Metcalf NWR 
n=18 



Snowy Egret 

Egretta thula 



Little Blue Heron 

Egretta caerulea 

LL 8; July 28, 1983; North of 

the Little Rocky Mountains 
n=3 



Cattle Egret 

Bubulcus ibis 

QLL 9C; June 29, 1988; 

near Bowdoin NWR 
n=13 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 
t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


-" 






- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 






- 


t 
























- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 




t 
b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 

B 




- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 




t 
t 


- 


t 




- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 






- 


- 




- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 






t 



















t 



_t 

t - - t 

t - - t - - t - - - - 

t - t t t - t - - 



13 



Green-backed Heron 

Butorides striatus 

QLL 17B; May 22, 1985; Benton Lake NWR 
QLL 9C; May 23, 1985; Bowdoin NWR 
n=9 



Black-crowned Night-heron 

Nycticorax nycticorax 

SI 



Yellow-crowned Night-heron 

Nyctanassa violaceus 

LL 29; Sept. 26, 1976; 
Cottonwocxd Reservoir 
n=2 



t t - - 

t 

t 
t - - t 

t t 



- 


B 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


b 
B 


B 
B 


t 
t 


B 


B 


- 


t 


- 


B 
B 


B 

B 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 
t 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 






- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 






b 


B 
B 




















Threskiomithidae 



White-faced Ibis 

Plegadis chihi 

TES 



- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


B 
B 


t 


- 


t 








B 


B 








t 








~ 


t 


~ 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 




t 




















t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


~ 


B 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 










t 




















~ 


t 


t 


t 


B 
b 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


• 










b 






















t 


t 

















14 



Ciconiidae 



Swans 



Wood Stork 

Mycteria americana 

LL 32; May 4, 1918; Custer 
n=2 



mm 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















ANSERIFORMES ■ Anatidae 



Tundra Swan 

Cygnus columbianus 



-W--W 

-Wwww 

WW-w 

--wW-w 

-W 

Trumpeter Swan 

Cygnus buccinator 

TES 

-w 

-W--W 

U 

--WW---W-- 
-W 



t 


t 


t 






t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 










t 






t t 


t 


t 


t 


















t 


t 

t 


t 






t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


" 


t 




t 


t 




t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 






- 






t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 






















« 





- 


b 
t 


t 
t 
t t 


t 
t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


t 


b 


t 
B 
B B 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 


b 


t 


t t 
b 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 






- 


t 


B 


t 

t 
b t 


B 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















15 



Mute Swan 

Cygnus olor 

SI (introduced) 
---W 

Greater White-fronted Goose 

Anser albifrons 

-w 

— w 

--H 

Snow Goose 

Chen caerulescens 

MM 

-w 

--WW — WW-- 
--WW-W 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 












B 


















— 


~ 


t 


B 
B 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


- 


- 










B 










t 


t 





















1 


















- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 














t 


t 












t 


















" 


t 
t 


~ 


t 


t 


" 


~ 


■ 


t 


t 


- 


t 




t 






t 


















t 


~ 


~ 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 




- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 






- 


t 

















t t 
tttttttttttt 

Li_ii L i L 

t t 
tttttttttt-t 

t t t t 
tttttttttt- 

t 

t t t - t t t t - 
t t 



Ross' Goose 

C/7en rossii 



t 
tttttt-tt-t 
t_ ^_t _t 

t t 
t - t t t t 

t 
t t - t - - t - - t - 

t - t 



16 



Geese, Ducks 



Brant 

Branta bernicia 

LL 33; No location 
n=7 



t - t - 

t - - - t - - - - 

t 

t 



Canada Goose 

Branta canadensis 



WWW-WWw-wW-w 

UUUUWW-www-w 

UwwUm--UUw- 

-UWWwUwww- 

wW 



Wood Duck 

Aix sponsa 



WW w--- 

-w 

W-Ww 

--W--W 

Green-winged Teal 

Anas crecca 

wU w — 

wW-wwww 

UUww 

--WW-W 

MM 



B 

B 
B b 


B 
B B 


t B 

B 
b B 


b 
B 


b 
B 
B 


t t 

B 
b t 


B 

b 


B 
B 
b B 


B B 

B 
B 


B 

B 
B B 


B 


B 


t t 
B 


B 
B 
B B 


B 
B 
B 


B B 

B 
b b 


B 

B 


B 


B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B B 
B 

t 


B 


B 




t 
B 
B 


B 
B 


b b 

B 

t B 


b 
B 
B B 


B 
B 


B 

t 


B 
t 


B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 






t b 
t 


b 
B 


B B 
B 

t 


B 

B 
B 


b 
B 


B 
B 


B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
b 
b 






B 
B 


B B 
B 





















t 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


B 


t 


t 


t 




B 


t 


t 








t 


B 


t B 






B 




t 


t 


















t 


B 
t 


B 
b 


t 


b 


~ 


t 


B 


t 


~ 


t 


B 






b b 




b 


















B 


- 


t 


B 


- 


- 


t 


B 


B 


B 


- 




b 




B 


t 










b 














B 


B 


















- 


B 


B 


b 

t 


B 


B 


B 

t 


t 


t 


■ 










t 


































< 









B 


b 










B 


B 






B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
B 


t 


b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


b 
t 


b 


B 




t 


b 


B 


B 


b 








t 






b 


B 
t 


B 
B 


B 
b b 


B 


b 


B 


B 
b 


b 


B 


B 
b 


B 








b 


t 


















B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


t 


b 


b 


B 




B 




t 


t 














b 






t t 




b 


B 


















b 


B 


B 


b 
B 


B 


B 


t 


t 


B 


b 










B B 




















b 


B 

















17 



American Black Duck 

Anas rubripes 



-w-w 



■w-w- 



t - - - t t - t 
_t 

t - - t - t - - - - t 
t t t - - 

t t - t - t - - 



Mallard 

Anas platyrhynchos 



UUwwUUUWUWU- 

UUUWWWWUww-M 

WWUWUwUUWUU 

-WWUWUUUw- 

wU 



Northern Pintail 

Anas acuta 



uu UW-- 

-U-wwww 

UWwU 

-wWW-WW--- 
-W 

Garganey 

Anas querquedula 

QLL 14D; April 4, 1991; Charlo 
n=2 



B 

B 
B B 


t 
B 
t B 


b b 

B 

t B 


b 
B 
B 


b 
B 
B 


B B 

B 
B 


B 
b 


B 
B 
b B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B 

B 
B B 


B 


b 
B 


B t 
b 


t B 

B 
t b 


B t 

B 
b B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


B 


B B 
B 

b 


6 
B 

b 


b B 

B 
b 


B 
b 


B 

b 




t 
B 
B 


B B 
B 


b B 

B 
b B 


b 

B 
B t 


B 
t B 


B 

t t 


B 
B 

t B 


b 
B 


B 

b 


b 
B 


B 
b 






B b 
B 


b 
B 
b 


B b 
B 


B t 

B 
B t 


t b 
B 

t 


b b 
B 


b 
B 


B 

b b 


b 
B 


b 
B 
t b 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















B 


B 

t 


B 
b 
t B 


b 
B 
B 


b 
B 


B B 

B 
B b 


B 
b 


b B 
B 
B 


B B 

B 
B B 


B 

B 
B t 


B 


b 
B 


b 


b 
B 
b 


t 
B 

t 


b B 
B 
b 


B 
B 


b 

B 


B 


B 

B 
b 


B B 
B 


B B 
B 


B 
b 


B 
b 




B 


b 


B 
B 

t 


t 
B 

b t 


B 

t t 


B 

t 


B 

B 
t 


B 


B 


B 


B 

b 






t b 
B 


t 


b t 
B 


t 


b 


t 
B 


B 


t 


B 


B 
t b 






B 


B 
B 

















t 



18 



Ducks 



Blue-winged Teal 

Anas disc or s 



-w 

w 

W--W 

--W--W 

Cinnamon Teal 

Anas cyanoptera 

-w 

W--W 

Northern Shoveler 

Anas clypeata 

WW 

w 

W--U 

--Uw-w 

-w 



Gadwall 

Anas strepera 



UU WW-- 

WW--W-W 

W--W 

--WW-wW--- 

-w 







B 


b 


b 


b b 




B 


B B 


B 




b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B B 


B t 








B 


B 


b B 


B 






B 


B B 


b b 






t 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




b 


t 


b b 








b 




b 


b 


b 






b 


b b 


b 






B 


b 










B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


6 


B 


B 


B 


B 




B 




b t 


b B 


b 












b 






t t 




b 






b 


b 




b 








~ 


B 
b 


B 


t 
B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


B 


B 
b 








b 


B B 
















b 


B 

















t t 
b 



B 
B 



b B 
B 
b 



t b 

b 
b t 



B 



b 
B 
b t 



B B 
B 



t t 
b 



B 



t B 

B 
b b 



b 
t 
b t 



t t 
B 



B B 

B 
B b 



B 
b B 



B 



B 
B B 



B 



B 
t t 



b B 
B 



B 

B 
B 
B b 



b 
B 
b B 



B B 
B 



b 
B 
b b 



B 
t t 

b B 

B 
b 



19 



Eurasian Wigeon 

Anas pen elope 



American Wigeon 

Anas americana 



Www-w — Ww-- 

Ww-wW 

WW-W ww- 

--WW-wW--- 
-W 



Canvasback 

Ay thy a valisineria 



www 

WW--U 

U 

--UW--W 

-w 

Redhead 

Ay thy a americana 

WW W-- 

WW--W 

w 

--wW-ww 

-w 















t 












~ 


t 

t 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


t 
t 


~ 


- 








t 


















* 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


" 


~ 


~ 


~ 


- 


- 


- 




t 




t 


t 


















t 


~ 


~ 


t 


* 


" 


~ 


~ 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 




- 






B 


b 


b 


b 




b 




B 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 




b 


t B 


B 


b 


b b 


t b 




B B 


t B 








t b 


t 


b B 


B 


b 








b B 






t 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




b 


t 


b b 








b 


t 


b 


b 


b 






t 




t 






B 


b 










B 


B 


B 


b 
b B 


B 
b 


b 
b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


6 
b 






t 




B 




















B 


t 


B 


t 


b 


B 


B 


t 


B 


B 








b 


B B 














B 


B 














B 




b 


b b 




B 










B 


B 


t 


B 


t 


t 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


B 




B 


B 


B 


b 


b b 


b 


b B 


B 


t 








t 




B 


B 






B 




t t 






t 


b 
b 


6 


B 

B b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 

t 


b 

b 


b 










t 


















B 


B 


t 
t 


t 
B 


t 


t 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 
t 










b 




















* 


t 


t 


t 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 










B 














B 


B 














B 




b 


b 














B 


B 


b 


b 


t 


t 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


B 




B 


B 


B 


b 


b b 


b 




B 


t 






t 


t b 


t 


B 


B 






B 


B 


t t 






t 


B 
b 


B 

t 


6 
b b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 




B 


t 




b 








b 










b 


B 


b 
b 


B 

t B 


b 
b 


t 


B 


b 


b 


t 


t 






t t 




b 






t 














t 


t 


B 


B 


B 


t 


t 


t 


b 


t 










B 
















b 


B 

















20 



Ducks 



Ring-necked Duck 

Ay thy a collar is 



Www 

WW--W 

W--W 

--W 

-w 

Greater Scaup 

Ay thy a mania 

--W 

w 

W--W 

--W 

Lesser Scaup 

Ay thy a af finis 

Ww W-- 

WW--W 

W-Ww 

--WW-wW--- 
-w 

Harlequin Duck 

Histrionicus histrionicus 

TES 

-w 







t B 




















B 


B 


b 


b 


- 


- 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b 


t B 


B 




b 








t 








t 




b b 












t 






t 


b 
b 


B 
t 


t 
b b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








t 




















t 


B 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


B 


t 


t 






b 


- 


b 


b 
b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








B B 






















t 


B 

















t 

t - t t t 

t 
t t - t - - t - - - - 

t - t 



B 
t 


B 
B 


B 
b 
B 


B 
B 


b t 
b 
b 


t 

B 
b 


b 
b 


B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
b 
t t 


b 


b 
B 


t t 

t 


t t 
B 
b 


B 
t 


b B 

B 
b b 


B 
6 


t 


B 


B 


B 

t 


t t 
b 

t 


b 
b 


B 




t 


t 
B 


t 
B 
B 


b 

t 
B 


t 

t t 


t 


b 
b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


t 


t 

t 






b 
b 


t 


b 


t 
b 


B 
b 


t 
t 


t 

t 


t 


b 


t 






b 
b 


B B 
B 

















B 


B 


B b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


b 


b 


B B 


B 










t 








B 




B B 


B 


















t 


t 
B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


■ 


■ 


~ 


" 












t 
















b 


B 


" 


t 


b 


■ 


~ 


" 


~ 


~ 


■ 




- 


- 


b 


b 
B B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















21 



Oldsquaw 

Clang ula hy emails 

U W-- 

-w-w 

w 

Black Scoter 

Melanitta nigra 

LL 17; Nov. 2 1979; Benton Lake 
n=4 

Surf Scoter 

Melanitta perspicillata 

White-winged Scoter 

Melanitta fusca 

-w 

W--W 



- 


t 

t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 








t 


















" 


t 


• 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


t 


~ 


t 


* 


~ 








t 




















~ 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 


t 


" 


~ 


~ 


" 


" 






- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 








- 


- 

















t 

t t 

t - t 



t ------ t - t 

t _t t 

t 

t - t t - - 

t t t - t 

t t - t - - t - - 
t 



- 


t 
t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 




t 


















" 


t 

t 


t 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 










t 


















t 


t 


" 


t 


" 


" 


t 


~ 


" 


" 


" 






- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















22 



Ducks 



Common Goldeneye 

Bucephala clangula 



UUU-UWWWWU-- 

wVMwWWW-ww-w 

UVMU---WUUU 

-UUUwUUW-- 



Barrow's Goldeneye 

Bucephala islandica 



WWW-W---WW-- 

-W--W-W 

WW-W ■ 

--WW-WWW-- 
WW 



Bufnehead 

Bucephala albeola 



UUw 




w- 


- 


Uw- 


-W-W-- 


-- 


- 


w- 


-w 


-- 


- 


■ 


-WW-W 
WW 


■ ~ 


" 



Hooded Merganser 

Lophodytes cucullatus 



www w--- 

WW--W-W 

WW-w 

--wW-w 

-w 



B 
b 


B 
B 


t t 

B 
t t 


t 




t 


t 


B 


B 


B 
t t 


t 


B 


t t 
t 


b 
B 
t t 


B 
B 

t 


t b 

b 

t t 




t 


t 


t 


t 
t 


t t 

t 


t 


t 




B 


t 
t 


t b 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






t 


t 




t 

t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 






t 


t t 





















B 




















B 


B 
B 


B 
b B 


b 
B 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


t 


t 
t 


~ 


t 




t 


b 


b t 












t 






t 


b 


B 
t 


t 
b t 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 






b 






















t 


t 


t 
B 


t 


t 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


' 


~ 






t 


t 


t 


b 
B 


b 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 










B B 


















t 


B 





















b B 




















B 


B 


t 


B 


t 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b 




b 


b 


b 


t 








B 


t 








t 




b 


















t 


t 

t 


B 

t 


b 

t 


b 


" 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 










t 


















b 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






b 


t 


t 


t 
B 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








B B 






















t 


B 














. 







t 




















B 


B 
B 


B 


t 


t 


■ 


~ 


t 


t 


t 
t 


~ 


t 








t t 












t 






t 


B 


B 
t 


t 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


~ 


t 


t 




b 






t 


















B 


t 


t 


B 


t 


■ 


t 


* 


~ 


t 


* 
















t 














■ 


B 


B 


t 

t 


~ 


~ 


t 


t 


~ 


t 








t 




















t 


t 

















23 



Common Merganser 

Mergus merganser 



UWW-WW--WW-- 

WUW-WWU--W-W 

WU-W---WWWW 

--UUwWUU-- 



Red-breasted Merganser 

Mergus senator 



W--W 

"wW-w 



Ruddy Duck 

Oxyura jamaicensis 



Ww 

-W--W-- 
w 

--WW- 



B 

B 
b b 


t B 
B 
B 


b B 

B 
B B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


B 


t 


t 


B 


B 
B 


b 


t 


B 
b 


t b 

B 

B t 


B 

b 
b b 


B B 

B 
B b 


b 
B 

t 


b 

t 


B 


b 


B 


t t 
B 


b 


t 




B 
B 


b B 
B 


t b 
B 

t 


b B 

B 
t t 


B 


B 


t 


B 


B 


t 


t 






t t 
b 


B 


t 
B 


B 

B 
B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 


t 


t 


t 






t 


B B 
B 

















- 


t 
t 


t 






t 


- 


t 


t 


t 
t 


- 


t 




t 




t t 












t t 






~ 


t 


t 






~ 


t 


t 

t 


t 


t 


t 


■ 










t 


















t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


• 


t 


t 


t 


t 


~ 






- 






t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 































B 




b 


B 














B 


B 


b 


- 


t 


t 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 




b B 


B 


B 


b 


b 






B 


t t 






t 


b 




B 


B 










B t 






t 


B 
b 


B 


B 
b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 

t 


b 


b 


b 










t 








t 










B 


b 


B 


t 
t t 


t 


t 


B 


b 


b 


t 


b 
b 






t 




b 


















b 


t 


B 


b 
b 


B 


B 


t 
b 


t 


b 


b 








B 






















b 


B 

















FALCONIFORMES ■ Cathartidae 



Turkey Vulture 

Cathartes aura 



b 


t 
t t 


t 
t 

t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


b 


t 
B 
t 


b 

t t 


t 
B 


t 


- 


t 


b 

t 


b 


t 
b 


b 


b 




b t 
B 

t 


t t 
B 


t 
B 

t 


b 
B 

t 


t 
t 


t 


t 
t 


b 


t 


b 


t 






t t 
b 


b 


b 
b 


t 
b 


t 
b 
t 


t 
b 
B t 


b 
t 


t 
B 

t 


b 


t 
B 
B B 






- 


b 

















24 



Accipitridae 



Hawks 



Osprey 

Pandion haliaetus 



Bald Eagle 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus 

TES 



UUU-UU--WUW- 

UWVAAAJUUUw-U 

WUUUUWUUUUU 

wUUUUUUUwW 

WU 



Northern Harrier 

Circus cyaneus 



WW- -Www- WW- w 

WW-WW-WWW--W 

W-WWwwWwwww 

-WUwwWWW-w 

WW 



Sharp-shinned Hawk 

Accipiter striatus 



WWWww 





WWW-W-W-- 





WWww 


■ww- 


-WWW-W- 


■W-- 


-W 





b 




t B 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


B B 


B 


t B 


b 


b 










t 








B 


B B 


b t 












B 






B 


B 
B B 


B 
t B 


B 
b 


t 


• 


t 


B 


B 


B 
b 


" 


t 




B 


t B 


t 


b B 


















B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 




B 




B 


B B 




















b 




B B 


t 












t 




B 


B 


B 


b 
b 


B 


B 


b 

t 


B 


- 


~ 








B B 


















b 


B 

















B 
B 
B B 



B B 
t 



B B 

6 
B B 



B B 

B 
B B 



B 



B B 

B 
B b 



B 
B 



B 



B B 
B 



t t 



B 



B t 
B 

t 



b 
B B 



B 



B 



B B 
B 



B 
b 
B B 



t t 



t t 

t 
t t 



t 
B 
b B 



t t 
B 



B 

B B 



b 
b b 



t b 
B 
b 



t b 
b 
b 



B 



B b 
B 



b b 

B 
t b 



t b 
B 

t 



t t 

B 
b 



b b 
B 
t 



B b 
b 



B 
B b 



B 
t b 



b 
t t 



t 

B 
b B 



t t 
B 
b 



b 




t b 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


b 


t b 


b 




t 




t 




t t 








t 


b 


b 












t t 






B 


b 

t 


b 
t 


B 


b 


b 


B 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


b 




t t 


t 


t 




















B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 




B 




t 






















t 




t 


b 


t 














b 


t 


B 
t 


B 
t t 


b 

t 


b 


t 


t 


b 


6 








t t 




















b 


b 

















25 



Cooper's Hawk 

Accipiter cooperii 



wvw 

Www — w 

wwUw w-w 

--WW-W-W-- 
w- 



Northem Goshawk 

Accipiter gentilis 

TES 



WWW WWw-- 

-WWWW-ww 

WwWWW-w-www 
-WWWww-W-- 
-W 



Red-shouldered Hawk 

Buteo li neat us 

LL 3; Sept. 13, 1965; 
West Glacier 
n=2 



Broad-winged Hawk 

Buteo platypterus 





t 


t b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 


t B 


b 




t 






t 


t 










t t 










b 




t 






b 


B 

t 


B 

b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


B 


B 




t 


t 


t 






t 














B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


- 


b 


- 


b 


t 


t 




t 


























b 






b 


















b 


b 


B 


B 

t 


b 

t 


b 


b 


B 
t b 


t 


B 










b t 




















b 


b 

















b 
B 
b t 


B 

t 


t B 

B 
b B 


b 


- 


t 
t 


B 


- 


t 
t 


t 

t 


- 


t 


b 


t 
t t 


B 
b 
B 


B t 

B 
B 


t 


- 


6 


t 


b 


t 
b 


- 


- 




B t 
B 
t 


t 
B 

t 


t 
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26 



Hawks 



Swainson's Hawk 

Buteo swain son/ 



Red-tailed Hawk 

Buteo jamaicensis 

UU W-- 

WWwww-w w 

U--W--WW-WW 
wUUwwUUW-- 
-w 



Ferruginous Hawk 

Buteo regalis 

TES 



-WW 



-w — w- 



Rough-Iegged Hawk 

Buteo lagopus 



UWWUUU-WUUUw 

WUUWUUWUUUUw 

WUWUUUUUUWM 

uuuuuuuuuu 

WW 







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27 



Golden Eagle 

Aquila chrysaetos 



uwwwuwuuwuwu 
uva;uuwwwuuwu 

UUwUWWWVAAJw 
WUUUWWUWVM 
wW 



■ Falconidae 
American Kestrel 

Faico sparverius 



WW W-- 

WW-www 

U-www-wwww- 

--Ww-W-W-w 



Merlin 

FaIco columbarius 



wwU-WUw-Uww- 
ww-WW-ww — U 

WW-W www 

-WW--W-W-W 



Peregrine Falcon 

FaIco peregrinus 

TES 



wU — w-wwW-- 

-W--W--WW-W- 

W--W-WW-W-- 

-wUw-w 



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28 



Grouse 



Gyrfalcon 

Faico rusticolus 



-w wW-- 

-W-WWWW--W-- 

WwwwwW 

--W---WW-- 



Prairie Falcon 

FaIco mexicanus 



wU-wWU—UU-w 
wU-UU-UWUwwW 

UUWUU-MWWWW 

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w- 



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GALLIFORMES ■ Phasianidae 



Gray Partridge 

Perdix perdix 
(introduced) 



WUUUUUWWUUWU 
wU-WWWUUWUwU 

wwwwuuuuuww 

wWWUwUWWW- 
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Chukar 

Alectoris chukar 
(introduced) 

-W- 

-W 

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29 



Ring-necked Pheasant 

Phasianus colchicus 
(introduced) 



ww-uwuwwwwwu 

UWUUUWUUUWU 
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Spruce Grouse 

Dendragapus canadensis 



uuuu- 

WUUw- 
WW-- 



Blue Grouse 

Dendragapus obscurus 



WWWW--W — 

UUUw-UUU--- 

WW-wWUW--- 

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Willow Ptarmigan 

Lagopus lagopus 

LL 3; Feb. 21, 1914; Midvale 
n=1 



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• 



30 



Grouse 



White-tailed Ptarmigan 

Lagopus leucurus 



-w 

Ruffed Grouse 

Bonasa umbellus 

uuuw 

WWUw-UUww--- 

UWWwwUU 

-WUWw 

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Centrocercus urophasianus 



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B 


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31 



Greater Prairie-chicken 

Tympanuchus cupido 

LL 12; Medicine Lake; (MT 
Outdoors 11:25) 
n=1 



Sharp-tailed Grouse 

Tympanuchus phasianellus 



WUWUWVAMAAAJ 

-U-WUWUVMMJ 

W--WUUWUUUU 

--UUmWUWWU 



Wild Turkey 

Meleagris gallopavo 

(introduced) 



WW 

W-W--WWWU--W 

U--UWWWWWUW 

---W-wWWWW 



Northern Bobwhite 

Colinus virginianus 

LL 2; Feb., 1982; Big Fork 
n=9 (introduced) 



b 



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- 


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32 



D GRUIFORMES ■ Rallidae 

Yellow Rail 

Coturnicops noveboracensis 

QLL KB; Sept. 30, 1984; 
East Bay, Flathead Lake 
n=3 

Virginia Rail 

Rallus limicola 

W--W 

-W---W 

Sora 

Porzana Carolina 

w 

--W--H 

Common Moorhen 

Gallinula chloropus 

LL 15; May 2, 1972; Seeley Lake 
n=1 



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33 



American Coot 

Fulica americana 



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Gruidae 



Sandhill Crane 
Grus canadensis 



Whooping Crane 

Grus americana 

TES 



t 
b 


B 
b B 


B 
b 
b 


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t 


t 


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t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 
t 
B 


b b 
b 

t 


t 


- 


b 


t 


t 


t t 
t 


t 


t 




B 
b 
t 


B 
B 


b 
B 
B B 


b 

B 
b 


B 
b 


B 
t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






B B 
b 


B 

t 


B 
B 


B 

b 
B 


B 

t 


b 
t 


t 


t 

t 


t 


t 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















t t 
t - - t - - t 

t - - t t t 

t t - t - - t t 

t - - t - t t t 
t 



n CHARADRIIFORMES ■ Charadriidae 



Black-bellied Plover 

Pluvialis squatarola 



34 



t t - - - - t t t t t 

_t t 

t t 

t-tt-tttt-t 

t t 

t - t t t t t - - t - 
_t t 

t t 
t - t - - t t t 
I t| I I I 

t 



Cranes, Plovers 



Lesser Golden-plover 

Pluvialis dominica 



Snowy Plover 

Charadrius alexandrinus 

LL 41; Sept. 5. 1982; 

Broadview 
n=4 TES 



Semipalmated Plover 

Charadrius semipalmatus 



Piping Plover 

Charadrius melodus 

TES 



- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 

t 


- 


t 








t 












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35 



Killdeer 

Charadrius vociferus 



WW--WW--W--- 

WW--W 

U-WW — wwww 
-wWW-W-U-- 



Mountain Plover 

Charadrius montanus 

TES 



B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B 
b B 


b 

B 
B 


b 
B 
b b 


B 

B b 


B 
b 


t 

B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B B 


B 

b 


b 
B 


B 


t B 
B 
b 


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B 
b t 


b B 

B 
b b 


B 
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B 

b 


B 
b 


B B 

B 
b 


B 
b 


B 

b 




b 
B 
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b B 
B 


b 
B 


b 

B 
B t 


B 
t B 


b 
B 


B 

B 
b b 


b 
B 


B 

b 


b 
B 


B 

b 






b b 
B 


b 
B 

t 


B 
B 


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B 
B t 


t b 

B 
B 


b b 
B 


b 
B 


t 
B 
b b 


b 
B 
b 


B 
b 






B 
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B 

















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b 


b 


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B 


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B B 










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b 


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B 


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b 


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b 








B 






















~ 


b 


t 


" 


• 


" 


t 


- 


- 


- 








- 


- 

















Recurvirostridae 



Black-necked Stilt 

Himantopus mexicanus 



American Avocet 

Recurvirostra amerlcana 



- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 
B 


B 
B 


- 


- 


t 








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t 
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b 
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B 


t 


B 


B 
b 


t 


t 


t 


t 






b 
b 


B t 
B 

















36 



Scolopacidae 



Sandpipers 



Greater Yellowle^s 

J ring a melanoleuca 



Lesser Yellowl^s 

Tringa flavipes 



Solitary Sandpiper 

Tringa solitaria 



Willet 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus 



t 


t 
t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 

t 


t 


t 


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t 
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t_ li L 

t t t 

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t_ t_ 

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t t t t t t t t t t t 

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t t 

ttttttttt 

It I It I I 

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t t 



t t t t t t t t t t t t 

t_ L 

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t t t t - t - t t - t 

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t t t t t t t t t t 

I I |t I I I 

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b 


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37 



Spotted Sandpiper 

Actitis macularia 



Upland Sandpiper 

Bartramia longicauda 



Whimbrel 

Numenius phaeopus 



Long-billed Curlew 

Numenius americanus 



B 
b 


B 
B 


b b 

B 
B B 


B 
B 


B 
b 


B 
b 


B 


b 
b 


B 
B 


b 
B t 


B 


b 


b 
b 


B 
t b 


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B 
B 


b b 

B 
b b 


b 
B 


B 


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b 


b b 
b 


b 


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b 
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b 


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t b 


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b 






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t 


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b 


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b 


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b 






b 


B B 
b 





















b 




b 






t 








b 


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b 


b 


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b 


b 


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b 


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b 
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b 
B 


b 


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B 
b 


b 
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b 
b 














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B 


b 


B 


b 








t 


~ 


B 


b 
B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


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B 

t 






- 


- 

















t t t - - 

_t 

t t 

t t - - - - t - - 

t 

t - - t - - t t - - - 

t - t t t - - - 





b 


b 


t 


b 


b b 




t 










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t 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


6 


b 


b 


b 






B 


b 




b b 


b 


b 




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b B 




b B 




b 








t t 






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B 


b 

t 


B 
b b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t 
b 


b 
b 




t 


t 


b 


t 






B 






b 






b 


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b 


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b 


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b 
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6 


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B 


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6 


B 


a 















38 



Sandpipers 



Hudsonian Godwit 

Limosa haemastica 

QLL 9C; April 29, 1991; 

Bowdoin NUR 
n=11 



Marbled Godwit 

Limosa fedoa 



Ruddy Turnstone 

A r en aria inter pres 



Black Turnstone 

Arenaria me/anocepha/a 

LL 3; Aug. 28, 1957; Lake McDonald 
n=l 



t t t - - 

_t 

t t - t 

t t - - t - 







t 


t 


b 






t 








b 


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b 


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b 


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t 










b 












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t 


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t - t t - - - - t - - 

t t 

t - - t - - - 

t 






39 



Red Knot 

Calidris canutus 

QLL 9C; May 13, 1988; 

Bowdoin NUR 
n=17 



Sanderling 

Calidris alba 



Semipalmated Sandpiper 

Calidris pusilla 



Western Sandpiper 

Calidris mauri 



t - - t 

_t 

t t - - - - t - - 

t t - - t 

t - - t - - - - 



t t t - t 

t t 

t t t 
t - t t - - - - t - - 
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t 

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t t_ 

t t t 

ttt-t----t-- 

t t 

t - t t t - t t - t - 

_t t 

t t 
t t 

- t • 



40 



Sandpipers 



Least Sandpiper 

Calidris minutilla 



White-rumped Sandpiper 

Calidris fuscicol/is 

QLL 2A; July 29, 1985; 
Dry Lake, Fortine 
n=14 



Baird's Sandpiper 

Calidris bairdii 



Pectoral Sandpiper 

Calidris melanotos 



tt--ttt-tt-t 

t_ L 

t t t 
tttttttt-ttt 
t_ t_ 

t t 

t--tt-ttttt 

t 

t t t t 
t t t t - - t t t 



- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


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t 


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- 


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t 












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t 










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t 






















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t 



t t t - t - t t t - t t 

t_ L 

t t t 

tttt-tt-ttt 

t 
t - - t t - t t t t - 

t 

t t 
t - t t - - t - 

t 



41 



Dunlin 

Calidris alpina 



Curlew Sandpiper 

Calidris ferruginea 

LL 17; May U, 1972; 
Benton Lake 
n=1 



Stilt Sandpiper 

Calidris himantopus 



Buff-breasted Sandpiper 

Tryngites subruficollis 

LL 14; Fall. 1982; 
Pablo Reservoir 
n=8 



t t t - t 

t 

t 
t t 

t 
t - - t - - t - - - - 

t - t t - - - t 

t t 



t 



t 
ttt----tt--t 
t t t 

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t - - t - - - - t - - 

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t__t t 

t 
t - - - - t - t 
I 1 1 I I I 



t t - - 

t - - t - - - - 
t 



42 



Sandpipers 



Short-billed Dowitcher 

Limnodromus griseus 

QLL 25B; July 23, 1988; 

south of Frenchtown 
n=19 



Long-billed Dowitcher 

Limnodromus scolopaceus 



Common Snipe 

Gallinago gallinago 



WW Ww-- 

WW--W-W w 

WmWW WW 

-wWWwW 

WW 

American Woodcock 

Scolopax minor 

LL 14; Oct. 1, 1983; 
Ninemi le Creek 
n=2 



- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 

t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 








- 


- 





















t 






t 














t 


t 
t 


t 
t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 




t 




t 












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t 


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■ 


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t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 










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t 




~ 


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t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








- 























b 


b 


b 






t 








b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 




b 


b 


b 


b 


t 








b 




b b 




b 








t 






b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


t 


t 


b 


b 




b 


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b b 








b 


b 




b 






b 




b 


b 






b 












B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 




B 




b B 


b 


b 


b 


t 




b 




b 






B b 




b B 


B 


t b 


b 


b 












B 


B 
t 


B 
t 


B 
B 


B 
t 


B 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 








b 


B B 














b 


B 














4 



t 



43 



Wilson's Phalarope 

Phalaropus tricolor 



Red-necked Phalarope 

Phalaropus lobatus 



Red Phalarope 

Phalaropus fulicaria 

QLL 9C; July 24, 1984; 

Bowdoin NUR 
n=6 



b 


B 

t 


b 
B 
b 


b 
b 
b 


b 
B 
b 


b 

B 
b b 


b 
b 


b 

t 


B 

B 
B 


b 
t 


b 


b 
B 


- 


t 
B 

t 


B 
t 


b B 

B 
b b 


B 
B 


b 
b 


B 


B 
b 


t 
b 


t b 
B 


b 


b 




t 
B 

t 


b 

b 


b 
b 


t 
b 
t b 


b 
t b 


b 
B 


B 
B 

t 


b 


b 


t 


b 

b 






t 
b 


B 
t 


t 
B 


b 


t b 
B 


t 
b 


b 
b 

t 


b 


b 
B 


b 
t 






b 
b 


B 
B 

















t t t - - - - t t t t 
t _t t 

t t t 

t-tttt-tttt 

t 
t - t t t t t - - t - 

t 
t t t t - - t t - 

t 



_t 



Laridae 



Pomarine Ja^er 

Stercorarius po mar in us 

QLL 40B; June 28, 1990; 

Ha If breed NWR 
n=4 



t - - - - 

t 



44 



Jaegers, Gulls 



Parasitic Ja^er 

Stercorarius parasiticus 

QLL 2D; Nov. 15, 1987; 

near Somers 
n=13 



t 

t t 

t t 

t 
t 



Long-tailed Ja^er 

Stercorarius longicaudus 

QLL 14B; Sept. 30, 1988; Flathead Lake 

southwest of Wildhorse Island 
n=6 



Laughing Gull 

Larus atricilla 

LL 27; May 27, 1980; 
Warm Springs 
n=1 



Franklin's Gull 

Larus pipixcan 



SI 



t 
t - - t 

t t - t 



t 

* 







t 




















- 


- 


b 


t 


b 


b 


b 


t 


B 


t 


t 


b 




t 


t 


t 


b 






t 


B 


t 












t B 


B 


t 








t t 






t 


t 


t 


B 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 




t 


t 


















t 


- 


t 


b 

t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






t 
























- 


t 


t 


t 


B 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 






t 


B 






















t 


B 

















45 



Bonaparte's Gull 

Larus Philadelphia 



Mew Gull 

Larus can us 

LL 10; Oct. 26, 1977; 

Ft. Peck 
n=1 

Ring-billed Gull 

Larus delawarensis 

SI 

wW WW-- 

WW W-- 

"-W 

--W--W 

California Gull 

Larus californicus 

SI 

-Ww-w W-- 

-w W-- 

---W 

--WW-W 



t t t t t - t 

t _t t 

t t t 

t - t t - - - - t - - 

t 

t t 
ttttttt--t- 

t t 

t t - - - t - - 
t I I I I I 

t 






t 
t t 


t 

t B 


t t 
b 

t 


t 
B 
t 


b 
B 
B 


t 
t b 


b 
b 


t 
t 
B 


B 
B 


t 
t 


t 


t 
B 


t t 

t 


t 
B 
t b 


t 
b 


t B 

B 
b t 


t 
B 


t 
t 


t 


t 


B 

t 


t B 
B 

t 


t 
t 


t 




t 


t 


t 
b 


t 

B 
B t 


t 
t t 


t 

t 


t 
B 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 






t 
t 


t 


t 
t 


t 
t 

t 


t t 
B 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


- 






B 


t t 
t 

















t 

t 


t 
B 


t t 
b 

t 


t 
B 
b 


b 
B 
B 


b 
b b 


B 
b 


t 

t 
b B 


B 
B 


t 

t 


t 
b 


t 
B 


t 


t 
B 
b 


t 


t B 
B 

b t 


B 

B 


t 


b 


B 

t 


t 
t 


t B 
B 

t 


t 


- 




t 


t 
b 


t 
t 


t 

B 
B t 


t 
t 


t 
t 


B 


t 
t 


t 


t 


- 






- 


t 

t 


t 

t 


t 

t 
t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 






b 
B 


b t 

t 

















46 



Gulls 



Herring Gull 

Larus argentatus 

WW W-- 

WW--W W-- 

Thayer's Gull 

Larus thayeri 

QLL 10D; Nov. 16, 1991; 

Ft. Peck 
n=3 

Iceland Gull 

Larus glaucoides 

LL 10; Dec. 14, 1979; Ft. Peck 
n=2 

— w 

Glaucous Gull 

Larus hyperboreus 

LL 10; Jan., 1984; Ft. Peck 
n=11 

W-- 

W-- 



t 


t 

t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


B 


t 

t 


- 


t 




t 
















t 






t 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


" 


t 


t 


t 










t 




t 


















t 


~ 


* 


t 


" 


t 


" 


t 












- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 








- 


- 

















t 

t_ 

— »— ^^ ^^^—^ ^B-^^™ I ■ I I ■ ■ ^^^^-^ ^i^^^™ _^.^1_> B^^^—B ' "^^^^^ ^^ 



t 

« 



t t - - 

- t t - - 



47 



Glaucous-winged Gull 

Larus glaucescens 

QLL 14B; Jan. 26, 1991; Poison 
n=2 



t 



Great Black-backed Gull 

Larus marinus 

QLL 10D; Feb. 21, 1987; Missouri 

River below Ft. Peck power plant 
n=2 



t 



Black-l^ged Kittiwake 

Rissa tridactyla 

QLL 28A; Nov. 23, 1990; 

Canyon Ferry Dam 
n=4 

W-- 

W-- 



t - - - 
t 



Sabine's Gull 

Xema sabini 

QLL ID; Sept. 17, 

Libby Dam 
n=10 



1985; 



_t_ 

t - - t 

t t - 

t - t 



48 



Terns 



Ivory Gull 

Pagophila eburnea 

LL 10; May 25, 1974; 

Ft. Peck 
n=1 



Caspian Tern 

Sterna caspia 

SI 



Common Tern 

Sterna hirundo 

SI 



Forster's Tern 

Sterna forsteri 

SI 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


• 


- 


t 


- 











- 


- 








b 








t 


t 

t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 




t 
b 


b 

t 


" 


t 




t 
















B B 






- 


t 

t B 


" 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


t 


B 


■ 


■ 




t 
























- 


t 


t 


b 
B 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


' 


t 






- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 






- 


t 




















B 


B 






- 


B 


t 


t 


b 
b 


t 
b 


b 


B 


B 
B 


t 
t 


t 


B 




t 




B 


B 










B 






- 


B 
t 


t 


B 


B 


~ 


t 


B 


B 

t 


B 


~ 


t 




t 


t 


t 


B 


t 


t 


B 


t 


- 


t 


- 






- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 






t 


b 










n 


























t 








- 


t 
b 


t 


- 


- 


~ 


~ 


t 


t 


t 


" 


t 








B 












t 






- 


b 
B 


t 


t 


- 


■ 


t 


t 


t 


B 


" 


' 




t 




t 




















t 


- 


- 


B 


t 


■ 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 














t 
















- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 


t 










B 


















t 


b 

















49 



Least Tern 

Sterna antillarum 

QLL 43A; June 5, 1991; 
Castle Rock, Colstrip 
n=8 TES 



Black Tern 

Chlidonias niger 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B B 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 






- 


- 





















B 












B 








b 


B 
b b 


B 
B 


* 


B 


b 


b 


t 


B 
B 


t 
t 


t 


B 








t B 












t t 






~ 


B 
b 


B 
t 


b 


B 


t 


t 


t 


b 


B 


t 


t 








B 




















t 


B 


b 


b 


t 


t 


b 


t 


t 


b 


t 

b 










b 




















b 


t 


t 


- 


B 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 








B 






















t 


b 

















Alcidae 



Marbled Murrelet 

Brachyramphus marmoratus 

QLL 15C; June 26, 1985; North 

end of Seeley Lake 
n=1 TES 



Ancient Murrelet 

Synthliboramphus antiquus 

LL 10; Dec. 10, 1979; Ft. Peck 
n=5 



t 



t 

t t - t 



50 



COLUMBIFORMES ■ Columbidae 



Doves 



Rock Dove 

Columba livia 

(introduced) 



WWUWWVAAAAAM 
UWUUWUUUWwUW 

WWWW WW 

-UUWWW---W 
W- 



Band-tailed Pigeon 

Columba fasciata 

QLL 15A; Sept. 25, 1991; 

Spotted Bear Ranger Station 
n=18 



White-winged Dove 

Zenaida asiatica 

LL 17; June 27, 1979; 
Benton Lake NWR 
n=1 



Mourning Dove 

Zenaida macro ura 



WW---W--W--- 

-w ■ 

u-w ■ 

--WW-W 







B 


b 


b 






b 








b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 




b 


B 


B b 




B b 


b 


b 


B 


b 








B 




B 


b 


b 








t t 






b 


b 
B t 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 
b 


b 


B 
b 


B 
b 


b 




t 


B 


b 


b 






B 












B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 




B 






B 




B 






b 




b 










B B 


B 


b 


b b 








b 






~ 


B 
b 


B 
t 


B 
B 


b 
t 


B 


b 


b 
b 


- 


B 






b 


b 

















ttt--t 

t 
ttt 

t t 



B 

B 

t b 

B 
b b 



b b 

b 

t b 
t t 

B 
B t 
t B 

B 
b 



B 
b 

b B 
B 
b 

t b 

B 

t t 



b 

B 
b_t 
b t 

B 
t 

t t 
b 



B 
B b 



B 

b 
B 
b t 



B 

B b 



B 

B 
b b 
b b 

B 



B 

bT 
B 



B 
B B 
B B 

B 
b 

B 
b 

t b 

B 
b b 



B 

t 

t b 

B 
b t 



b 
B 
t b 



51 



CUCULIFORMES ■ Cuculidae 



Black-billed Cuckoo 

Coccyzus erythropthalmus 



Yellow-billed Cuckoo 

Coccyzus americanus 



n STRIGIFORMES ■ Tytonidae 
Common Barn-owl 

Tyto alba 

QLL 26A; July 7, 1991; Rattlesnake 

drainage north of Missoula 
n=10 



■ Strigidae 
Flammulated Owl 

Otus flammeolus 

QLL 25D; July 29, 1991; 

Blodgett Canyon 
n=9 TES 







b 




















" 


~ 


t 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 








t 




b 














~ 


b 


~ 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 










t 






b 












" 


~ 


b 


B 
B 


" 


b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 
b 










B b 


b 


b 


b 


b 












" 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B 
B 


b 


b 


B 






- 


t 

















t t - - 

t 

t 
t b b b - 

_t 

b - - b - b b b 



t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















52 



- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 

t 
t 


B 


B 

t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 






- 


- 

















Cuckoos, Owls 



4 











■A:/ ^M^,., 









\\jKtCA 



Eastern Screech-owl 

Otus asio 

QLL 41B; Dec, 12, 1988; Yellowstone 

River north of Huntley 
n=13 SI 

Ww--- 

Westem Screech-owl 

Otus kennicottii 

SI 

-w 

U 



Great Homed Owl 

Bubo virginianus 



UWVMAJ-UUWUw 

uwuwuuuuwwva; 

WUVAJ-wU-www 
-wWWWWVAM- 
-W 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 


- 


- 






- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


t 
B 


t 


b 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















- 


t 

t 
t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 
B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 

















B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
b 
B 


B 
B t 


b 
B 


b 
B 
b 


B 
b 


B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


B 


B 


b 
t 


t b 

B 

t t 


B 

t 


b B 

B 
B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


t B 
B 

t 


B 
t 


B 
t 




t b 
B 
B 


B 
B 
t 


B 
b t 


t t 

B 
B 


B 


B 


B 
B 


t 
B 


B 
t 


B 


B 






b b 

B 


b 
B 


B 
B 


B 

B 
B 


t 
B 
B 


t 
B 


B 
B 


B 


B 


b 
B 






B 


B 
B 

















53 



Snowy Owl 

Nyctea scandiaca 



Wm-wWUwUVAAM 

-W-wUwwWUUww 

w--wUWUwww- 

W-W-WWW--W 



Northern Hawk-owl 

Surnia ulula 

LL 14; Dec. 20, 1981; 
Pablo Reservoir 
n=12 

-w 

--W 

Northern Pygmy-owl 

Glaucidium gnoma 

www 

wwww 

WWWW-w 

--WW 

Burrowing Owl 

Speotyto cunicularia 

(formerly genus Athene) 
TES 

w 



tttttttttttt 

_t t 

t t 
ttttttttttt 

^—^— —— ^___ ^_^^ _____ ^^__ ^___ ^___ ___^ 

tttttttttt- 
tt t t t - t t 



t t t 

t 

t 







b 




















b 


B 


b 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t b 




















t 




t 


t 


















b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 




t t 




















b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 




B 




t 






















b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


. 


. 


. 


. 












t 


















- 


- 





















b 


t 




b 




b 


B 








b 


t 


~ 


~ 


B 
b 


B 
b 


B 
b 


B 


B 
B 


B 
t B 


B 


B 


t 






B 


B 










B 






" 


b 
t 


" 


b 


B 


t 


t 


b 

t 


B 


B 


B 


B 

t 










t 


















t 


~ 


b 


B 


t 


b 


B 


b 


b 

t 


b 


B 








B 


B 




b 


B 














b 


t 


b 


B 


B 


6 


b 


B 

t 


B 


b 

t 








t 




















t 


b 

















54 



Owls 



Barred Owl 

Strix varia 



WW 

wWw 

Great Gray Owl 

Strix nebulosa 

TES 

WWW 

--W 

W--W 

--W 



Long-eared Owl 

Asio otus 



WW---W--W--W 

-W-w 

W-W w- 

--Ww-wWWw- 



Short-eared Owl 

Asio flammeus 



-W-WWW-WWW-w 

-W-WW---WW-- 

WW-WwWwwwww 

--W-wW-Ww- 

-W 



b 


B 
b 


b 
b b 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b t 




















t 


b 

t 


B 


t 


" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t t 


B 










t 












t 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


. 


_ 


. 


_ 




t 


























- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 








- 


- 

















b 


B 
b 


b 
B 
b b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 

t 


b 
b 


- 


- 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t t 

t 
B 


t 
B 
b t 


t 


b 


b 
B 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b B 

t 


b 


B 


b 
B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


b b 
B 

















b 


t 

t 


b 


- 


b 
b 


t 
t 


t 


t 


B 


t 


- 


b 




t 




t 


















' 


b 
B 


~ 


t 


B 


b 


B 
B 


B 


t 


b 


- 


B 




B 


b 


t 


b 


t 




B 


b 


t 


B 


B 




B 


























t 


















B 








B 


B 


b 


t 


t 


B 
B 


B 
B 


b 


b 










B 


















1 


- 


b 




















1 


















« 







t 




b 


b 




t B 


B 








b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


t 


B 


b 


b 


B 




B 






b 


t b 


b 




B 


t 






t 


t 




B 


B 


t 








t t 








B 
b 


t 
t 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 

t 


b 


b 










b 






B 


t 










B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


t 


b 


B 




B 






b 










t 




t 






B 




b 






t 


t 




t 








b 


t 


b 


b 


t 


B 


t 


b 


b 


b 






























B 
















b 


b 

















55 



Boreal Owl 

Aegolius funereus 
TES 

-w 

--W 

Northern Saw-whet Owl 

Aegolius acadicus 

www W-- 

-W--W--W 

W-w 

--Ww-wWW-- 
-w 



b 


b 

t 


B 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 

b 
b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 
b 
t 


t 
b b 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b b 

b 

b b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 





















b 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 


b 






t 






t 








t 






b b 


















- 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


b 




b 






















t 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 


. 


b 


t 


t 


. 




B 


B 
























b b 


b 






















- 


- 


B 


b 


t 


t 


b 


b 


- 


t 








- 


b 

















D CAPRIMULGIFORMES ■ Caprimulgidae 



Common Nighthawk 

Chordeiles minor 



B 
b b 


B 
b 


t b 

B 
t b 


b 
B 


b 
B 

t 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


b 
b 


B 
B 


b 
t b 


b 
b 


b 


b 
B 


b 
B 

b t 


t 
b 

t t 


b b 

b 
b b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


B 


B 


b 
b 


t t 

B 
b 


b 
b 


B 
b 




B B 
B 
B 


b b 

B 

t t 


b 
B 
b 


B 

B 
b t 


b 
b 


b 
b 


B 

B 
t B 


b 
B 


b 
b 


b 
B 

t 


b 
b 






B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
6 


b 
B 


b 
B 
b 


b 
B 


b 
B 


t t 
B 
b 


b 
B 


b 
B 
b 






t 


b 

















Common Poorwill 

Phalaenoptilus nuttallii 



- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


t 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


B 


B 
b 


b 


b 


- 


t 




t 


t 






















t 


b 


- 


~ 


t 


b 


B 


~ 


B 


B 


" 












t 


b b 
















* 


" 


b 


t 


t 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 








- 


- 

















56 



Nightjars, Swifts 



Whip-poor-will 

Caprimulgus vociferus 

QLL ID; June 28, 1990; 

Libby Dam 
n=1 



t_ 



APODIFORMES ■ Apodidae 



Black Swift 

Cypseloides niger 



Chimney Swift 

Chaetura pelagica 



Vaux's Swift 

Chaetura vauxi 







t b 




















b 


b 
t 


B 
b 


- 


- 


• 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 


B 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


^ 


_ 


_ 


^ 


t 


t 


t 






















t 
























t 


t 


























- 


t 

















- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


B 
B 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


B 


B 


t 






- 


- 


t 


b 


- 


t 


- 


t 
b 


b 


- 






- 


- 

















b 
B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
B 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 
B 


t 
b 

t 


t 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 
B 
b 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















57 



White-throated Swift 

Aeronautes saxatalis 



b 


t 


b 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 








t 








B 










b 


b 


b 

t 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 


t 


B 


" 


" 


* 




t t 


t b 






















B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 




b 










B 


B 




















b 












b 






" 


b 


b 


B 

b 


B 

t 


B 

b 


b 
t 


B 

t 


" 


b 








- 


- 

















Trochilidae 



Ruby-throated Hummingbird 

Archilochus colubris 

QLL 15B; June 10, 1988; Webb 

Lake (Spotted Bear River) 
n=7 



Black-chinned Hummingbird 

Archilochus alexandri 



Anna's Hummingbird 

Calypte anna 

LL 41; Jan. 23, 1983; Billings 
n=5 



-w- 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















b 


B 
t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 




t 




















B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 




b 






















- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 








- 


- 

















t 

t 

t - - t - - - - 



58 



Hummingbirds, Kingfisher 



Calliope Hummingbird 

Stellula calliope 



Broad-tailed Hummingbird 

Selasphorus platycercus 

LL 13; May 19, 1981; St. Regis 
n=10 



Rufous Hummingbird 

Selasphorus rufus 



B 
B 
b 


B 
b 


b b 

B 
b b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 
b 


b 
B 
b 


B 

B 
b 


b 
b 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t b 
6 
B 


b 
B 


b 
b 
t 


b 
b 
b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 






t 


b 


b 


b 
B 
t 


b 
b 


b 
B 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


B 
b 

















t b 

t 

t 

b 



B 




b b 




















B 


B 


B 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b b 


b 


B b 






t 
















t 


B t 


b 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t t 


b t 






















t 


b 


t 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 


t 


b 






















b 






b 
















~ 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 

B 


■ 


" 


" 


' 








- 


t 


1 



CORACIIFORMES ■ Alcedinidae 



Belted Kingfisher 

Ceryle alcyon 



WWw-U W-- 

wwww-ww 

UWWww w- 

-UUWmUUU-- 
WW 



b 




b b 










t 










B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


- 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b b 


b 


t b 


b 


b 




b 






b 








t 


B t 


b b 












t 






b 


B 
t t 


B 
b t 


B 
b b 


b 


b 


B 


B 


t 


t 


b 


b 




b 


b b 


b 


t b 




B 














B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 




B 


t t 


t 


B 




B 


t B 














B b 


b 


b 


B 


b 














b 


B 
b 


B 

t 


B 
B 


B 
b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 
b 






b 


B B 




















b 


b 

















59 



PICIFORMES ■ Picidae 



Lewis' Woodpecker 

Melanerpes lewis 



Ww 

uw 

--W--W-W-- 

Red-headed Woodpecker 

Melanerpes erythrocephalus 

--W-- 

Red-bellied Woodpecker 

Melanerpes carolinus 

LL 10; Dec. 1, 1981; Ft. Peck 
n=1 

W-- 

Red-naped Sapsucker 

Sphyrapicus nuchal is 

(formerly combined with 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker) 

w 



B 
b 


B 
b 


B 


- 


- 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 
B 
b t 


B 


t 
B 


t 


b 


t 


b 
t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 
B 


B 


t t 
B 

t 


t 
b 


b 


t 


t 
t 


t 


b 


- 


- 






t 
b 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


- 


B 
b 






- 


t 
b 



























t 






B 








~ 


t 


t 


• 




b 


B 


b 


B 


B 
B 


b 


B 


- 


t 


b 


t 




- 


B 
B 


B 
B 


B 

t 


t 


b 


B 










t 






b 












~ 


~ 


t 




b 


b 


b 
t B 


b 
B 


B 


B 


B 
b 


















b 


t 




b 






~ 


~ 




t 


B 


B 


b 

t 


B 


b 


B 
b 






- 



















^^-^— ^^^^ ^^^^ * ^ ^ ^ ^ I 







b b 










t 










B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


- 


6 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b b 


B 


B B 


b 






















B t 


B 




b 




t 










b 


B 


B 


B 


- 


B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


B 


b B 


B b 






















B b 


b 


b 




















B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 


b 


b t 


b b 




















b t 






B 












t 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


- 


- 








B B 


















b 


B 

















60 



Woodpeckers 



Williamson's Sapsucker 

Sphyrapicus thyroideus 



Downy Woodpecker 

Picoides pubescens 



WUUwWWwUWWWw 

WWUwWWU-UW-U 

WUWUmwWwww- 

WWWU-UwUWU 

-w 



Hairy Woodpecker 

Picoides villosus 



UUUwVAJwUwU-w 

UUUwUWU--WwU 

WUUW-wUwUw- 

wWUUWUwWUU 

-w 



White-headed Woodpecker 

Picoides albolarvatus 

QLL IB; March 23, 1991; Parsnip 

Overlook Trail southwest of Eureka 
n=6 



B 


B 


b 




















b 


B 






















- 


b 
b b 


B 
b t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b b 


b B 


b 


b 


















b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 




b 






















b 






B 
















■ 


B 


B 


B 
B 


■ 


* 


~ 


~ 


~ 


■ 








B 










b 


b 

















b 
b 


B 
b 


b 
B 
b b 


b 
b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


t 


b 


B 
b 


b 


b 


b 
B 


B 

t 


B t 

B 
b t 


b 
B 
b 


t 


b 
b 


B 


t 


t 


t 
t 


b 


b 




B b 
B 
B 


t t 
B 


t b 
b 

t 


b 

b 
b 


B 


B 


b 
b 
t b 


t 


b 


b 


b 






t 


B 


B 


B 
B 

t 


b 
B 

t 


b b 
B 


b 


b 
b 
b b 


b 
b 


b 






- 


B 
b 

















b 




t b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


t 


b 


B 


t 


b 


b b 


b 


b b 


b 












b 










B t 


B 












t 






B 


B 


B 


B 


t 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


b 


B 


b B 


b t 


b 




















B b 


B B 


b 


t 




B 














B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


t 


t 


b 


b 


B 




B 


B 


b t 


b 






t 














b b 




b 


B 












b 




B 


B 


B 


B 
B 


B 
b 


b 


b 


B 
b b 


b 


B 








B B 


















b 


b 






































« 



t t 

t 

_t 

t 



61 



Three-toed Woodpecker 

Picoides tridactylus 



www 

www 

WW 

--W 

Black-backed Woodpecker 

Picoides arctic us 

TES 

WWW 

w 

-w-w 



Northern Flicker 

Colaptes auratus 

SI 



WWWwWWwWWW-w 

WWWWWWWW---W 

WWWWWWWwWWw 

wWWW-WwWWW 

w- 



Pileated Woodpecker 

Dryocopus pileatus 



WWW-- 

WWW-- 

WWw- 







B b 




















B 


B 


B 
b b 


b 


• 


~ 


* 


* 


- 


~ 


~ 


~ 






t 


b 


















b 


B 

t 


B 


~ 


■ 


■ 


" 


~ 


" 


~ 


* 


* 




b 


t 






















B 


B 


B 


b 

t 


b 


b 


~ 


" 


~ 


■ 


* 












B 


















b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


" 


b 


~ 


- 


- 








B 












" 


" 





















b 




















B 


B 
t 


b 
b b 


" 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 


~ 


~ 


• 


b 


b 


b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t t 


t 






















B 


B 


b 


b 

t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b 
























- 


b 


b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


- 








- 


b 

















b 
B 
b b 


B 
B 


b b 

B 
b b 


t 
b 
b 


B 
t B 


B 

b 


6 
b 


B 
b 


b 


B 
B 


B 


B 


t 
B 
b 


b 
B 
b b 


B b 

B 
b t 


B b 

B 
b b 


b 


b 
b 


B 


B 
B 


b 
b 


t t 
b 


b 


B 
b 




B b 
B 
B 


b B 

B 
B t 


t b 

B 
b B 


B b 

B 
B b 


B 
b 


B 
b t 


b t 

B 
t B 


b 
B 


b 
b 


b 
B 


B 
b 






b b 
B 


B 
b 


B 

B 
t 


B 

B 
B t 


b 
B 
t 


b b 
B 


b 
B 


B 
B 
b b 


b 
B 


b 
B 
b 






b 
b 


B B 
B 

















b 


b 


b 




















b 


B 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b b 


t b 


b b 
























B 




















b 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 


b B 


B t 






















b B 


t t 


b 




















B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 


t 


b 






















b 






















t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


* 


~ 


" 


" 


~ 








- 


- 

















62 



PASSERIFORMES ■ Tyrannidae 



Flycatchers 



Olive-sided Flycatcher 

Contopus borealis 



Western Wood-pewee 

Contopus sordidulus 



Eastern Wood-pewee 

Contopus virens 

LL 8; June 6, 1970; Dodson 
n=2 



Alder Flycatcher 

Empidonax alnorum 

QLL 16A; Sept. 11, 1991; 

Pine Butte Swamp 
n=3 



b 
b 


b 

t 


b b 

B 
b b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 
b 


b 
b 
t b 


b 
B 
b 


b 

b 
b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b b 
b 

t 


b 
B 


b 
b 
b 


b 


b 
b 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 






b 
b 


t 


b 


b 
B 


b 
t b 


b 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b 


b 
b 





















b 










B 










B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b b 


b 




B 


b 






b 








B 


B t 


b b 


b 






B 




t 






b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b b 


b 


b b 










b 


b 








t b 


b 


b 


b b 


















B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 




b 


B 




b b 


b 


b 


b 




b 










b 




b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


b 






b 




t 


b 


b 


b b 


b 












B 


















■ 


B 

















t - - - - 
t 



t t 



(i3 



Willow Flycatcher 

Empidonax traillii 



Least Flycatcher 

Empidonax minimus 



Hammond's Flycatcher 

Empidonax hammondii 



Dusky Flycatcher 

Empidonax oberholseri 



b 
b 
b 


B 
b 


b b 

B 
t b 


b 
b 


b 


t 


b 
b 


- 


t 


- 


- 


b 


B 


b 
B 


B 
b 
B 


b 

b 
b b 


b 


b 
b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 




b b 
B 


b 
B 


b 
B 


b 

b 
b 


B 
b 


b 


t 


b 


t 


t 


- 






b 
b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b B 
b 


- 


b 


- 


b 


- 


t 






b 


B B 
b 





















b 




















t 


b 


- 


- 


b 


b 


- 


t 


t 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 






b 






b 








b 




b b 




b 




B 




t t 






" 


b 


b 


B 
b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


- 


t 


b 


b 
b 








b 




















B 


b 


- 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


b 


b 




B 






b 


b 


b 
























b 


b b 












" 


~ 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 
b 


b 


b 








b b 


















" 


" 





















b 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 


b b 






















b 




b 


















b 


B 


b 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b b 


b 


b 




















b b 


b b 


b 




















B 


B 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 


b 




b b 




















b t 






b 
















b 


b 


B 


B 
B 


t 


b 


~ 


b 


~ 


~ 








B B 










~ 


b 

















B 
b 


B 
b 


b 

b 
b b 


b 


b 


- 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 
b 
b 


b 
B 

b b 


b 
B 

b 


b b 

b 
b 


- 


B 


b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B B 
B 

t 


b 
B 

b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b 
b 


B 


B 


b b 

B 
B 


b 
b 

t 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 






b 
b 


B B 
B 

















64 



Flycatchers 



Cordilleran Flycatcher 

Empidonax occidentalis 

(formerly Western Flycatcher) 



Eastern Phoebe 

Sayornis phoebe 

QLL 190; Aug. 13, 1985; 

Lewistown 
n=5 



Say's Phoebe 
Sayornis say a 



Ash-throated Flycatcher 

Myiarchus cinerascens 

LL 27; Aug., 1978; Helena 
n=9 



B 


b 


b 




B 




B 












b 


b 


B 








b 














b 


B 


b 




b 














- 


b 


t 


- 


t 


b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 




b 


b 




















b 


b 






















B 


B 


t 


b 


"■ 


~ 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 












t 


b b 
















~ 


~ 


b 


b 
b 


t 
t 


b 


~ 


~ 


■ 


~ 










b b 














b 


t 

















t_ 

t 

t_ 

t 



t 
b 


t 
b 


b 

t 
B 


B 
B 


b 
b 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


b b 

t 
b 


b 
B 


b 
t b 


b 


b 
B 


t 


b 
B 


b 


b b 
B 


B 
B 


b 


B 


B 
b 


b 
b 


t t 
b 
b 


B 


b 




b 


B 


B 


t 
B 


t 


t 
B 


B 

B 
t b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b 
B 


B 
b 






- 


B 


B 


t 


b 
B 
t 


b 
B 


b 
B 


t b 

B 
b b 


b 
B 
t 


B 
b 
b 






b 


t 














(' 



t - - - - 

t - - - 
t t t - 



65 



Great Crested Flycatcher 

Myiarchus crinitus 

LL 45; June 12, 1972; Hamnond 

n=2 



Cassin's Kingbird 

Tyrannus vociferans 

SI 



Western Kingbird 

Tyrannus vertical is 



Eastern Kingbird 

Tyrannus tyrannus 



- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




B 


b 


- 


B 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


B 


b 


t 






b 


b 


b 






b 








b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 




b 




B b 


b 




B 


B B 


b 






B 




t B 


B 


b 








t t 






B 


6 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 




t 




b 








b 


b 


b 


b 


b 








b 


t 






B 


b 




b 






B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


- 


B 


B 


B 




t 






b 






t t 




b 




b 






b 




b 




b 


b 


b 


t b 


b 






b 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 






b 




t 


t 






b b 


b 


b 








t t 






t 


b 








b 


b 


b 






b 








b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t b 


b t 




B b 


b 


b 


B 


B B 


b 






t B 


t 


b B 


B 


b 




b 




t t 




b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 




b t 


t 


b b 








b 


b 


b 


b 


b 






t 


b 


b b 






B 


b 




b 






B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




B 




B 


b 


b 


b 


t 




b 




b 






B 




B 


b b 


b 


b 


b 


t b 


b 


b 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 






b 




t 


b 




b 


b b 


b 


t b 








t t 










b 


B 

















66 



Swallows 



Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 

Tyrannus forficatus 

QLL 48B; June 10, 1986; Conner 
n=6 



t t - - 

t - - - - 

t t 

t - - - - - 

—— ^^— •^-^— I I * * * * 



Alaudidae 



Homed Lark 

Eremophila alpestris 



WVAMWWWUWWWW 
WUWWWWUWUUUU 

-wUUwU-WUW 

WW 



■ Hirundinidae 
Purple Martin 

Progne subis 

LL 10; May 10, 1982; Ft. Peck 
n=18 



Tree Swallow 

Tachycineta bicolor 







b 


b b 


b 






b 








b 


b 


t 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




t 


b 


b t 




B b 


b 


b 


B 


t b 


b 






b 




b b 


B 


b 








B B 






t 


b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




t 


t 


b 








b 


b 


b 


b 


b 








t b 


b 






6 


b 




b 






B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 




t 


b 




b t 


B 


B 


t 




b 




b 










b 




B 


b 


b 


t b 


b 


t b 






B 


B 


6 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 








b 




B 






1 


t 


t b 






B 


t t 












B 


B 

















- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 




- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 


t 


- 






- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


• 




- 


- 

















B 
B b 


B 
B 


t b 

B 
b B 


t 
b 
b 


b 


t 
B 


B 
b 


- 


B 
b 


B 
t B 


b 


b 
b 


B 
B 


t B 

B 
b t 


B 

B 
B B 


b B 

B 
b b 


t 
B 


t 
B 


B 


b 
B 
t 


b 
b 


t 
t 


b 


t 




t 
B 
B 


t 
B 


b 
B 
B 


b 

B 
b t 


B 
t B 


B 
b 


b 

t 


t 


b 

t 


B 


t 
b 






B t 
B 


B 

t 


B 
B 


B 

B 
B t 


b 
B 
b B 


t B 
B 
b 


b 


t 
B 
B 


t 
b 


b 






b 
B 


B B 
B 

















67 



Violet-green Swallow 

Tachycineta thalassina 



Northern Rough-winged Swallow 

Stelgidopteryx serripennis 



Bank Swallow 

Riparia riparia 



Cliff Swallow 

Hirundo pyrrhonota 



b 




b b 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


B 


t 


b 


- 


t 


B 


b 


- 


b 


B 


b B 


b 












B 








t b 


B t 


b t 








B 










B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


- 


t 


b 


b t 


t B 


b 


b 








b 


t 








t 


t t 


b 


b 






b 












B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


b 


b 


- 




B 




t B 


b 




















t b 


b 


b 


b 


t 










b 




b 


B 


B 


B 
B t 


B 
b 


B 


b 


6 
b b 


B 


b 






b 


B B 
















b 


b 














b 




t b 


t 
















b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


- 


b 


B 


- 


t 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 






b 






b 








b 




b b 


















b 


B 
b 


B 


b 
b b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


t 


b 


b 


b 
t 




t 


t 


b 


b 


















B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


B 




B 






b 


t 


b 










t 










B 


b 


t 


t 




t 








b 


B 

t 


B 


B 
B t 


b 


B 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 

t 






b 


B B 
















b 


b 


















b 




b 






t 










B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t b 


b 




b 






B 


B 






B 


t 




b b 












t 






b 


B 


B 


b 
b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 
t 


B 
t 


B 

t 






t 


b 














t 






B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


B 


B 


B 


B 




B 


t 




b 


t B 


B 










t 










B 


B 








t 


t 






" 


B 
t 


B 


6 

t 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


t 






B 


B 
















B 


B 


















b B 


B 


b 






t 








b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


6 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B B 


B b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 








t B 


B t 


b B 


B 


B 




b 




t 






B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 




t B 




b b 








t 


B 


b 


t 


t 




t 


t 


b 


b 






B 


t 




t 






B 


B 


6 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 




t 






B t 


B 


B 






t 




b 






B b 




B t 


B t 


t 


t B 


t t 


t t 


t t 






B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 






t 




b 


b 






B b 


t t 


t t 






6 


B B 




















B 


B 

















68 



Jays 



Bam Swallow 
Hirundo rustica 



b 
B 
b 


B 
B 


t B 

B 
B B 


B 
b 
B 


B 
B 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


B 

b 
b 


B 
B 


B 
6 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
B 


t B 
B 
b 


B 

B 
t t 


B B 

B 
b b 


B 
B 


t 
b 


B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B B 

B 
B 


B 

t 


B 

t 




t 
B 
B 


t t 
B 
b 


b 
B 
B 


b 

B 
bb 


B 
t B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


t 
B 


B 

t 


t 
B 


B 
b 






B b 
B 


B 

t 


B b 
B 


B t 

B 
B 


t 
B 
b 


t 
B 
b 


t t 
b 


t t 

B 
B b 


t 
B 
b t 


B 
t b 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















Corvidae 



Gray Jay 

Perisoreus canadensis 



www 

WWW--W"- 

www 

W-WW-w- 
-w 



Steller's Jay 

Cyanocitta stelleri 



www • 

www • 

WWWw ■ 

-WWWwW--- 
-w 



Blue Jay 

Cyanocitta cristata 



WWW--WW-WW-- 

-WWWw-W W 

W-WW---WWW- 
-WWw-W 



b 




B b 




















B 


b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


b b 






















t b 


B t 


b 


















b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t b 


t t 


B 




















B B 


b b 




b 


















b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 


t t 
























b b 






b 
















b 


B 


B 


B 


t 

t 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 








B 
















t 


b 

















b 


t 


b b 




















b 


b 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


b b 
























B t 




















b 


B 
t b 


b 
b 


B 
b 


b 


~ 


~ 


• 


~ 


* 


~ 


** 




b b 


b 






















B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 




b 




b 






















b b 




b 


b 
















b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


~ 


~ 


~ 


" 








6 














t 


b 

















t 


t 

t 
t 


t t 

t 
t 


- 




t 
t 

t 


t 


- 


t 

t 
B 


t 
t t 


b 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 
t 


b 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


b 




t 
t 
t 


t 
t 

t 


t 
t 

t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


b 


b 


t 


t 






- 


t 




t 
t 

t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


b 


B 
b 






t 



















69 



Pinyon Jay 

Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus 



WW — 

UwUU-WUVAAA^ 
UwUU-WUUWW 



Clark's Nutcracker 

Nucifraga columbiana 



WWWWW-wW — 

wwww-wwww--- 

WWWW-w W- 

MwUWUw — M 
wU 



Black-billed Magpie 

Pica pica 



wwwwwuuwwuuu 

wwwwuuuwuuuu 

wwuwwwuuuuu 

wWWUwWUWUU 



American Crow 

Corvus brachyrhynchos 



WW — ww-w — 

WmWWWwwW 

WWww-wwwwww 
-WWWwWWW-W 
-w 



t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


b 


b 


b 

b 


b 

b 


- 


b 








t 


t 


















t 


t 


t 


B 
b 


t 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


t 






t 




b 


B 


b 
















~ 


t 


B 
B 


B 


b 


B 
b 


t 


B 


b 


b 






- 


- 



















t 


b b 




b 
















b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


- 


b 


b 


- 


t 


- 


- 


b 


t 


t b 


b 




















b 


t 


b t 


















b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


6 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b b 


t 


b 




















t b 


b t 


t b 


t b 


















B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 




B 


b 


B 


b b 




















b b 




b 


B 


B 














b 


B 


" 


B 
B t 


b 
b 


b 


b 


B 


t 


t 








B B 






















b 


B 

















B 


B 
B 


B 
B 
t B 


B 
B 


b 
B 
b 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


b 
6 
b 


B 

B 
B 


B 
B B 


B 


b 
B 


t t 
B 


t B 

B 

t B 


t 
B 

t 


b B 

B 
B b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


B 


B 
b 


B 


B B 

B 
b 


B 


b 
B 
b 




b 
B 
B 


b B 
B 


b 
B 
b B 


b b 

B 
B t 


b 
B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


B 

b 


B 


B 
b 






b B 
B 


B 
B 
b 


B b 
B 


B B 

B 
B t 


b 
B 
b 


b b 
B 


b t 
B 


B 
b b 


b 
B 


B 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















b 

b b 


B 
B 


b B 

b 

t B 


t 
b 
B 


b b 
6 


b 
t b 


6 
b 


b 


b 
b 


B 
b t 


B 


b 
B 


b 


b 
b 
t 


t 
B 

t 


b b 
B 
b 


B 

B 


b 
b 


B 


b 


t 


t t 

t 


b 


b 
B 
b 




B 

t 


b b 
B 
b 


B 
B 

t t 


b 

B 
b t 


B 
b 


b 
b 


B 
b 


b 


B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
t 






b 
B 


B 
b 


B 
B 


b b 

B 
B 


b 
B 

t 


B 


B 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b 
B 






B 
B 


b b 
b 

















70 



Chickadees 



Common Raven 

Corvus corax 



uwwu 

wuuuuwu--- 
wwwwww--- 

wVAMwWw- 
wU 



B 


t 


b b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


B 


b b 


t b 


b b 


B 


















t 


t B 


t t 


b b 


















B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


b 


B 


b b 


B t 


b b 












t 








B b 


b B 


t B 


t B 


















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


b 


t 


- 




b 


t b 


t 


b 


b 




B 




b 










b b 


b 


b B 


B 
















B 


B 


B 


B 
B 


b 
t 


B 


B 


b 


t 


t 






b 


B B 






















b 


b 

















Paridae 



Black-capped Chickadee 

Parus atricapillus 



UWUwUWWWUUmm 

uwwwwwuuuuuu 
uwuuuuuuwuu 

wUWUUWWWWW 

-w 



Mountain Chickadee 

Parus gam be// 



WWWwWw--W--- 

WWWWwWWW 

WWWWwWw 

wWWWWW 

wU 



Boreal Chickadee 

Parus /ludsonicus 



uu- 



B 
b b 


B 
B 


b 
B 
b b 


b 
b 


b 


B 

t 


B 
b 


b 


b 
B 


B 
t B 


b 


b 


B 
b 


b 
B 
b b 


B t 

B 
b t 


b B 
B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


B 


b 
b 


b 
b 


t t 
b 
b 


b 


b 




b b 
B 
B 


b b 
B 

t 


b 
B 

t 


b b 

B 
b b 


b 


B 
b 
b 


B 


b 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
b 






b b 
B 


B 


B 


B 

B 
B t 


b 
B 
t 


b 
B 


B 
b 


b 
B 
b 


b 


B 






b 


B B 
B 

















b 


t t 


b b 




b 
















B 


B 


B 


t 


b 


t 


B 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b b 


t B 


b b 


b 




t 








t 








b 


B t 


b 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b B 


b t 


b 




















b B 


b b 


b 


b 




6 














B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 


b t 


b 


t 




















b b 




b B 


B 


b 








t 






b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


B 
t 


b 


B 


" 


~ 


~ 








B B 
















b 


b 

















b 


B 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


b 


b 
B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















71 



Chestnut-backed Chickadee 

Parus rufescens 



uuu- 
wuu- 

wU- 



t 

B 
t b 


b 
B 
t 


b 
B 
b b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 
b 


B 


t 

B 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 

t 


b 

t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















Sittidae 



Red-breasted Nuthatch 

Sitta canadensis 



UWWw WW-- 

UUWW-WWU---U 
WWUUwWU-ww- 

-uwwwuwu-u 

WU 



White-breasted Nuthatch 

Sitta carolinensis 



VJUUw — W-W-- 

WWW--WWW---W 

UWWW-W---W- 

--WWwWWW-- 

-w 



Pygmy Nuthatch 

Sitta pygmaea 



WW 




Um 

LAJljU- 


--W — 






-W-- 


-WW--- 



b 
B 
b b 


t t 

B 

t b 


b b 

B 
b b 


t 
t 


B 


t 
t 


b 


b 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


B 
b 
b 


b 
B 
b B 


B t 

B 

b t 


b b 

B 
b 


b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


t t 
b 


- 


B 




B B 
6 
B 


B B 

B 
b 


b 
B 
t 


b b 
b 
b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


b 


b 






b b 
b 


b 


b 
B 


B 

b 
b 


b 
B 
t 


b 


t 


B 
b 


t 
b 


b 

B 






b 


B B 
b 































t 










B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 


b b 














t 








b 


b 














t 






b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


b 


t 


t 


b 


t 


- 


b 


b 


b B 


b 






















b b 


t t 


b 






B 














B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t 


B 


B 


- 




B 








b 


















b 






t 


b 










b 




t 


B 


b 


B 


B 
t 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 






- 


t 

















B 


B 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 


. 




b 


t 


























t 




















t 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 
























B 


B 


t 


t 


. 


. 


t 


. 


. 


t 


. 




B 


























- 


t 


t 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


t 








- 


t 

















72 



Certhiidae 



Nuthatches, Wrens 



Brown Creeper 

Certhia americana 



www 

WWWwwWw 

WWWW-W--W-- 
-wWWwW 



B 


b 
t 


B 
b 


- 


t 


t 
t 


b 


t 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


t 
b 


t 
b 
b 


B 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 
t 
b 


t 
b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 






B 

t 


t 


b 
b 


B 
B 

t 


t 


B 


t 


t 


- 


b 






b 


t 
b 

















Troglodytidae 



Rock Wren 

Salpinctes obsoletus 



Canyon Wren 

Catherpes mexicanus 



-Ww- 



--W-W 



House Wren 

Troglodytes aedon 







b b 




















b 


b 


t 


b 


b 


t 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 






b b 








b 




b b 


b 










t B 






b 


B 
b 


~ 


B 
b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


t 
b 


B 
b 


b 


b 




B 


b 


b 


b 






b 


b 










b 


b 


B 


B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


B 
b 






b 




b 




B b 


b 


b 




b 


b 




b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 






b 




B 


t 


b 




b b 


b 






b 


B 














b 


b 

















t 


- 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 
























~ 


b 
B 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 










t 


















b 


' 


~ 


B 


~ 


* 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 




- 


- 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


- 


B 




- 




- 


- 





















b b 










B 








b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B b 


b 


b 


B 


t 6 








B 




b B 


b 


b 








t t 




b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b b 




b b 








b 


B 


b 








b 




B 


b 






b 


b 










B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 




B 




B 


b b 


b 


b 






b 




b 










B 


B 


b 


b b 


b 


b 


b b 


b 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B B 


B 


B 






b 




B t 


b B 




b b 


b 








b 


B B 














B 


B 

















73 



Winter Wren 

Troglodytes troglodytes 



uu 

Uw 

WW 

— w 

Sedge Wren 

Cistothorus platensis 
LL 12; June 26, 1981; 
Medicine Lake 
n=6 

Marsh Wren 

Cistothorus palustris 

-w w--- 

-w 

W--W w- 

--W--W 



t 

B 
t b 


B 

t 


b b 

B 
b b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 
b 


b 


t 
b 
b 


b 
B 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b b 
B 
B 


b 
B 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b 
b 


t 


- 


t 

t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 






- 


t 

















b 

t b 







b 




















B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b 


- 


b 


t 


- 


b 


b 


B 














B 












t 


B 


B 
















" 


B 

t 


b 
t 


B 


t 


" 


t 


~ 


* 


- 


~ 


~ 




b 






b 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 




B 




b 


t 
























b 




















■ 


B 
b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


~ 


~ 








B 






















t 


B 

















Cinclidae 



American Dipper 

Cinclus mexicanus 



www 

WW-WH--W 

wwww 

wwWUwU 

WW 



B 




b b 




















B 


6 


B 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


B b 


t 


b B 


b 


















B 




B 


B 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 


t 


t 


b 




















b 


b B 




b 


















B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




t 


B 


B 






















t 
























B 


b 


B 


B 
B 


B 
t 


b 


" 


~ 


~ 


~ 










B B 














b 


B 

















74 



Muscicapidae 



Dipper, Kinglets 



Golden-crowned Kinglet 

Regulus satrapa 



WW-w w — 

UWUw 

WWwW-w 

--Wwww 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Regulus calendula 

u w--- 

-w 

w 

--W 

Blue-gray Gnatcatcher 

Polioptila caerulea 

LL 10; Oct. 9, 1977; Ft. Peck 
n=1 

Eastern Bluebird 

Sialia sialis 

QLL 43A; July, 1991; 

Lame Deer 
n=18 



B 




b b 












t 








B 


B 


b 


t 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


b b 


t 


b b 






t 








t 










t t 


b 


















b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


b 


B b 


b 






















b b 


b b 


b 




















b 


B 


b 


t 


B 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 




b 


t 
























b b 






t 




t 












B 


b 


b 


b 


t 


b 


• 


t 
t 


" 


t 






- 


b 



















t 


bb 




b 
















B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b b 


b 


b b 














t 








b 


B b 


b t 


b 
















b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


b 


b b 


b b 


b 




















b b 


b b 


b 


b 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 




b 


b b 


b b 


b 




















b 




b 


b 












t 




b 


B 


B 


b 
B 


b 
t B 


b 


B 


~ 


t 


' 








B B 






















b b 

















« 



- 


- 


t 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


B 
B 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 


t 




















B 








- 


- 




t 


- 


- 


- 


B 


~ 


B 








- 


- 

















75 



Western Bluebird 

Sialia mexicana 



-w 

Mountain Bluebird 

Sialia currucoides 

WW W-- 

w 

w 

--W--W 



Townsend's Solitaire 

Myadestes townsendi 



www WW- 
WW wWW-WW-w-W 

WWWWww W 

wWWWwWWW-- 
w- 



Veery 

Catharus fuscescens 



B 



t B 

B 
b b 



B 
B 
B B 



B 
B 



6 



b b 
B 



B b 
B 



B 



B B 
B 

b 



b 
B 
t B 



B 



B 



b b 

B 
b 



B 



B B 
B 



b 
B B 



B t 

B 
b 



b 
B 
b b 



B 
B b 



b b 
B 
B 



b b 

B 
b b 



t 

B 
b t 



b b 

B 
b t 



b 
B 
b t 



B B 
b 



t t 
t 







b 




















b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


t 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 






b 






t 












b b 




b 














b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b 




b 


b b 




















b 


b 


b 


b 


















B 


B 


b 

t 


b 


b 

b 


b 


b 


■ 


t 


t 


t 






b 




b 


b 




b 














b 


b 


B 


B 


B 
b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


t 








b 


b 

















76 



Thrushes 



Gray-cheeked Thrush 

Catharus minimus 

LL 12; May 16, 1983; 
Medicine Lake 
n=16 



Swainson's Thrush 

Catharus ustulatus 



Hermit Thrush 

Catharus guttatus 



Wood Thrush 

Hylocichia mustelina 

LL 43; May 2, 1981; Birney 
n=5 



t t - t 

t 

t t t - 

t - t - - - - 



b 




b b 


b 


















B 


B 


B 


- 


b 


t 


B 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b b 


b 


b b 


b 






b 






t 








b 


B b 


b t 








b 










b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


- 


- 


t 


t 


B 


b B 


b 


b 




















b b 


b 


b 




















B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 




b 


b B 


b b 


t b 


b 


















b 






b 












t 




b 


b 


B 


B 
B 


b 
t b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


- 








B 






















■ 


b 

















b 
b 


B 


b b 
B 
b 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 

t 


- 


- 


b 


b 
b b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


- 


t 


- 


t 




b B 
b 
B 


b b 

B 
b 


b 
B 


b 


B 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b t 
B 


b 


B 


b 
B 


b 
t b 


b 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 






b 


b 
b 














« 



t - - t - t - - 

__ 



77 



American Robin 

Tardus migratorius 



UW wWU-w 

WUU-WWUUU--U 

UWWUmUwUWWU 

UmWUwUWWU- 



Varied Thrush 

Ixoreus naevius 



w — w — w- 

WUw 

wUw 

W-- 



b 
B 
b b 


t t 
B 
B 


b B 

B 
b B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


B 

b 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
B 


B 
B 
b b 


B t 

B 
B t 


B B 

B 
B b 


B 
B 


b 
b 


B 


b 

B 
b 


b 
b 


B B 

B 
b 


B 
b 


b 
B 

b 




b B 
B 
B 


B b 

B 
b b 


t b 

B 
B B 


b B 

B 
b b 


B 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B 


B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
b 






B t 
B 


B 
b 


B b 
B 


B B 

B 
B t 


b 
B 
6 


b b 
B 


b 
B 


t b 

B 
b b 


t b 

B 

b t 


b 
6 
t b 






B 
B 


B B 
B 

















B 




b b 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


b b 


b 


b b 






b 






t 


t 






B 


b 


B b 




















b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 




b 






















b B 


b 


t 


t 


















b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 




b 
































t 
















~ 


~ 


t 


~ 


" 


t 


" 


~ 


~ 


~ 








t 


- 

















Mimidae 



Gray Catbird 

Dumetella carolinensis 



-w- 



Northem Mockingbird 

Mimus polyglottos 



B 
b b 


B 
b 


b 
b 
b 


b 
b 


b 


b 
b 


B 
b 


b 


b 


B 
b 


b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


b b 
b 
b 


b 
b 


b 
b 


B 


b 
b 


- 


B B 
b 


b 


b 
b 




b 
B 
b 


B 


b 
B 


b b 

B 
b 


b 
b 


b 
B 


b 
b 


B 


B 
b 


B 


b 






- 


B 
b 


b 
B 


B b 
B 
t 


b 
B 
b 


b b 
6 


b 
b 


b 
b b 


b 


b 






- 


b 

















- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 




t 






















~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


t 


~ 


~ 


t 


~ 


t 


~ 


~ 








b 


t 


















t 


■ 


- 


■ 


t 


t 


t 


" 


B 


t 


t 






- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 








- 


t 

















78 



Thrashers, Pipits 



Sage Thrasher 
Oreoscoptes montanus 



Brown Thrasher 

Toxostoma rufum 



-w- 



■ Motacillidae 

American Pipit 

Anthus rubescens 

(formerly Water Pipit) 
-w 

-W 

w 

---W-w 

Sprague's Pipit 

Anthus spragueii 



- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 


B 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 


- 


- 


b 
b 


b 
b 


b 
B 


t 


- 








b 








b 


b 










t 


t 


b 


B 
b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


t 
b 


b 


t 










b 






b b 


b 










b 


b 
b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


b 






b 


B 




















b 


b 





















b 




b 














b 






b 




B 


B 
B 


B 
b 


b 


b 
B 


B 
t B 


b 


B 








t 




b 




B 


B 


B B 






- 


t 


- 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 






t 










b 


t 


b 


b 


b 
















b 


b 




b 






t 


t 


' 


t 


t 


b 


B 


b 


b 
b 


b 


B 
b 














b 


b b 




b 








' 


' 


~ 


* 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 








- 


- 





















b b 




















b 


b 
t 


B 
t b 


t 
b 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 
t 


- 


t 








t 












t 






t 


t 


t 


b 


t 


~ 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 










t 


















b 


B 


t 


b 


B 


B 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 










b 


t 


















b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 










B t 














r 








b 


B 





















b 




b 














b 


- 


- 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 






b 


b 






b 


b 


B 




b 










b b 


b 








t 








" 


t 


~ 


B 
b 


b 


b 


B 


b 
b 


- 


b 


b 


b 




- 


- 


- 


b 


b 
B 


b 
B 


b 


- 


- 


b 


b 














b 














~ 


~ 


b 


~ 


b 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 








t 




















" 


' 

















79 



Bombycillidae 



Bohemian Waxwing 

Bomby cilia garrulus 



uuu-uwwwwuuu 

WUWUWWWUUWwU 
UWWUwUWUUwU 
UUUUwWUWVM 
w- 



Cedar Waxwing 

Bomby cilia cedrorum 



WW ww-- 

-wwww-W 

WWWW--WWWM- 
-WWw-WWW-- 

WM 



B 


t 


B 


_ 




t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 
















t t 








t 


t 


t 












t t 






t 


t 

t 


t 


t 




t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






t 






















t 


t 


t 

t 




t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 






- 


t 




t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 








t 



















B 
b b 


B 
B 


b b 

B 
b b 


b 
b t 


b 
B 


b 

b 
b 


B 
b 


b 


B 
B 


B 
t B 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 
B 
b t 


B t 
B 
b 


b b 
B 
b 


b 
b 


b 


B 


b 
b 


- 


t t 
t 


b 


b 
b 




b 
B 
b 


b 
B 


B 
B 


b b 

B 
b 


b 


b 


t 


t 


B 


b 


b 






t 
b 


B 


b 
B 


B 
B 

t 


b 
b 

t 


b 
B 


b 

b 
b 


b 
b 


b 


b 






b 


B 

t 

















Laniidae 



Northern Shrike 

Lanius excubitor 



WWWwWW-wWW-w 

WWWWwWWWwWWW 

WUUUwUUUWww 

WWWWWWWWWW 

w- 



Loggerhead Shrike 

Lanius ludovicianus 

TES 



-ww- 



tttttttttttt 
t _^J 

t t t t 
tttttttttttt 
t t 

t 
ttttttttttt 

t t t t t t t t t t 

t t 



b 


t 

t 


t 
t 

t 


b 
b 
t 


B 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


b 
b 


B 

B 
B 


B 
B B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


- 


b 


t 


t 
b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 

t 


B B 

B 
b 


B 
b B 


B 
b 




t 


b 


t 


b 


t 


t 
b 


B 


b 
b 


B 
b 


b 
b 


B 
b 






t 


b 


B 


t 


B 
B 


b 
B 


b 
b 
b 


B 


b 
B 

t 


B 
b 






- 


t t 
t 

















80 



Sturnidae 



Waxwings, Shrikes, Vireos 



European Stariing 

St urn us vulgaris 
( introduced) 



UUU-UV^fWUW-W 

WUUUUwW-U-ww 

UUUU--UUUW- 

-uwu-wuu-u 

WW 



b 
B 
b b 


B 
B 


B 
B 
b B 


t 
B 
b 


b 
B 
B 


B 
B b 


B 
b 


b 

b 
b 


B 
B 


B 
B B 


B 

b 


b 
B 


B 


t B 

B 

t t 


t 
B 

t 


b B 

B 
b B 


b 
B 


b 
b 


B 


B 
b 


b 
b 


t t 

B 
b 


B 
b 


b 
b 




b 
B 
B 


b b 
B 


t B 
B 
B 


b 
B 
B t 


B 
B 


B 
B 


B 
B 


b 
B 


B 
b 


b 
B 


b 
b 






B 
B 


B 
b 


B b 
B 


B t 

B 
B t 


t b 

B 
t 


b b 
B 


b t 
B 


b 
B 
b b 


b 
B 
t 


b 
t b 






B 
B 


B 
B 

















Vireonidae 



Solitary Vireo 

Vireo solitarius 



Warbling Vireo 

Vireo gilvus 



Philadelphia Vireo 

Vireo philadelphicus 

QLL 10D; July 30, 1984; Kiwanis 

Park below Ft. Peck dam 
n=3 







b 




















B 


B 


b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


b b 


B 


b b 






















b 


b b 


b b 


















b 


B 


b 


B 


b 


- 


b 


t 


b 


- 


- 


t 


b 


b b 


b 






















B B 


B b 


b 




















b 


B 


b 


- 


b 


- 


b 


b 


b 


b 


- 




B b 


b 
























b t 






b 


b 


b 








b 




b 


■ 


b 


b 


- 


t 


B 


B 
b 


b 


- 








t 


















~ 


t 





















b b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b B 


b 




t 


b 






b 








b 


B b 


b b 




b 




b 










b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b b 


b 


b b 




















b B 


b b 


b 


B b 








b 










B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 




b 


b 


B 


b b 


b 


b 






b 










b 






B B 


b 














b 


B 
b 


B 


B 
B 


b 
b b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 






b 


B 




















b 


b 

















t 

t 

t 



81 



Red-eyed Vireo 

Vireo olivaceus 







t b 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b b 


b 


b 


b 




t 


















B 


b t 


















b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


- 


t 


- 


B 


b 


b 


b t 












t 










B 


b 






















B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


t 


B 


b 


B 


- 






b 






b 




b 












b 


b 


B 


b 

t 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 






- 


t 

















Emberizidae 



Tennessee Warbler 

Vermivora peregrina 



Orange-crowned Warbler 

Vermivora eel at a 



Nashville Warbler 

Vermivora ruficapilla 







b 




















b 


B 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b 




























t 




















" 


b 


"• 


~ 


" 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 






t 


t 




















t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


- 




t 


























- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


- 


t 








- 


t 





















b b 










t 










b 


b 


B 


- 


b 


t 


b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


b b 


b 


b b 






t 








t 








t 


b b 


b 












t 






b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


b 


t 


b 


- 


t 


t 


t 


b 


b b 


b 






















b b 


b 


b 




















b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 




b 


























b 






b B 


b 














b 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


t 


~ 


~ 


" 


t 






- 


- 

















B 

B 
b 


B 

t 


b 

t 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


b 
b 


b 
b 
b b 


B 

t 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 




b b 
b 
b 


b 
b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 


- 






b b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















82 



Warblers 



Northern Parula 

Parula americana 

QLL 25A; June 28, 1988; 

West of Lolo 
n=4 



Yellow Warbler 

Dendroica petechia 



Chestnut-sided Warbler 

Dendroica pensylvanica 

QLL 12B; Aug. 16, 1990; Westby 
n=7 



Magnolia Warbler 

Dendroica magnolia 

LL 10; May 17, 1981; 

Ft. Peck 
n=12 



t 
t 

t 



b 




b b 




b 






B 








b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b b 


b 




t b 


b 


b 


B 


B 








b 


b t 


b b 


b 


b 








B 




b 


b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b b 


B t 


b b 








b 


b 


b 




b 




b b 


b 


b b 


b b 






b 


b 




b 






B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


B 


B 


B 




B 


t 


t 


b 


b 


B 






b 




b 






B 




b 


b B 


b 


b b 


b 


b 


b 


b 




b 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


B 


b 






b 




B t 


b B 


b 


b 


b b 


b 


b 






B 


B B 














b b 

















t 

t t - t - t 

t 

t - - - - 

* 



■ t t t t 

t t 

t 

t - t - t 



83 



Cape May Warbler 

Dendroica tigrina 

QLL 12B; Aug. 3, 1990; 

West by 
n=5 

Black-throated Blue Warbler 

Dendroica caerulescens 

LL 41; Sept. 23, 1980; Billings 
n=3 

Yellow-mmped Warbler 

Dendroica coronata 

SI 

M 

-WW 

-w 

--W 

Black-throated Gray Warbler 

Dendroica nigrescens 

LL 27; March 25, 1983; Helena 
n=3 

--W 



t 

t 

t 

t 



t 



b 
B 
b 


t 
B 
b 


b b 

B 
b B 


b 
b 


b 
B 


t 
t 


b 


b 


t 
t 


t 
t t 


t 


t 


B 
b 
b 


b 
B 
b b 


B b 

B 
b t 


b t 

B 
b 


t 


b 


b 


b 
b 


b 

t 


t 
b 


t 


t 




b B 
B 
b 


b b 

B 
b t 


b 
B 
b 


b b 

B 
t b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


t 
b 


b 


t 
b 






b t 
B 


B 


b 
B 


b B 

b 

B t 


b 
b 

t 


- 


B 


B 
b 


t 


b 
b 






b 


B B 
b 

















t - - t - - - - 



84 



Warblers 



Townsend's Warbler 

Dendroica townsendi 



Black-throated Green Warbler 

Dendroica v/'rens 

LL 38; May 17, 1981; Bozeman 
n=5 



Blackbumian Warbler 

Dendroica fusca 

QLL 9C; May 23, 1991; 

Bowdoin NWR 
n=7 



Yellow-throated Warbler 

Dendroica dominica 

LL 41; Dec. 20, 1981; Billings 

n=1 



b 


b 


b b 




















B 


B 


B 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


b b 


b b 












t 










b 


b b 


b 


















b 


B 


B 


B 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


B 


b b 


b 






















b b 


b t 


t 




















b 


B 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 




b 


b 
























b 






t 
















~ 


t 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


■ 


■■ 


~ 


" 






- 


- 

















t - - - t 

t 



t t--t 

Jt 

t - - t - - - - 






85 



Pine Warbler 

Dendroica pinus 

QLL 12B; Aug. 15, 1990; 
West by 
n=3 



t - - t - - - - 



Prairie Warbler 

Dendroica discolor 

LL 10; Sept. 5, 1973; 
n=1 



Ft. Peck 






Palm Warbler 

Dendroica palmarum 

QLL 12B; Sept. 30, 1990; Westby 
n=15 



t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 






- 


- 

















Bay-breasted Warbler 

Dendroica castanea 

LL 41; April 29, 1981 
n=5 



t - - - t - - 
t - - t - - - - 



86 



Warblers 



Blackpoll Warbler 

Dendroica striata 



Black-and-white Warbler 

Mniotilta van' a 



American Redstart 

Setophaga ruticilla 



Ovenbird 

Seiurus aurocapillus 



t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 
t 


- 


- 


t 


t 
t 


t 


t 








t 


















■ 


■ 


~ 


t 


t 


" 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 




t t 
























t 


t 


• 


• 


• 


~ 


- 


t 


t 


t 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


t 


t 


- 


- 


t 


t 








- 


- 

















- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


t 


t 


t 


- 


B 

t 


b 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


b 




- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


b 


t 


- 






- 


- 


t 


- 


- 


t 


- 


b 


- 


b 








t 




















■ 





















b b 










t 










B 


B 


B 


b 


t 


b 


B 


- 


t 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b b 


b b 




t 


b 






t 








b 


B t 


b t 








b 










b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


- 


- 


b 


b 


b 




b 


b 




















b 


b 


b 


b 


















B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


t 


b 


b 


b 


b 






b 






B 


b 


b b 


b 












~ 


b 


b 


b 

t 


B 
t 


b 


B 


b 
b 


t 


b 








- 


b 





















b 










t 










" 


t 


b 


b 


b 


■ 


b 


b 


t 


b 


b 


b 








b t 


















" 


" 


b 


~ 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


- 


t 


b 








b 






b 














" 


~ 


t 


b 


~ 


b 


- 


t 


- 


b 


- 




t 








t 




b 








b 






- 


- 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


















b 


b 










- 



















87 



Northern Waterthrush 

Seiurus noveboracensis 



Kentucky Warbler 

Oporornis formosus 

LL 10; Oct. 19, 1979; Ft. Peck 
n=1 



Connecticut Warbler 

Oporornis agilis 

QLL 12B; Septent)er 5, 1990 ; Westby 
n=3 



Mourning Warbler 

Oporornis Philadelphia 

LL 9; June 9, 1969; 

Bowdoin NUR 
n=1 



b 




b b 




















B 


B 


B 


b 


t 


t 


- 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


b 


b 


b b 


b b 


t 


t 








t 










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b b 


















- 


b 


b 


b 


t 


- 


b 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


b 




b 


b b 




















b 


b 


b 


b 


















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b 


B 


b 


b 


- 


- 


t 


t 


t 


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b 


















b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


t 


- 


- 


- 


t 








- 


b 

















t 



t 
t 

t - - - - 



t 



88 



Warblers 



MacGillivray's Warbler 

Oporornis tolmiei 



Common Yellowthroat 

Geothlypis trichas 



Wilson's Warbler 

Wilsonia pusilla 



Canada Warbler 

Wilsonia canadensis 

QLL 12B; Aug. 15, 1990; 
West by 
n=4 



b 




b b 










t 










B 


B 


B 


b 


B 


t 


b 


- 


t 


t 


- 


t 


b 


b 


b b 


b b 




















b 


B b 


b b 


















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B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


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b 


b b 


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b 




















b b 


b b 


b 


b 


















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B 


B 


b 


B 


b 


- 


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t 


t 


t 




B 


b 




b b 




















b 






b 
















b 


B 


B 


B 
B 


b b 


b 
b 


b 


" 


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b 


b 





















b b 




b 






b 








b 


b 


B 


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B 


B 


B 


b 


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B 


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B 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


t 


b 






b 


B 


b b 




b 




b 




t t 






b 


B 


B 


b 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 


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b 


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b b 








b 


b 


b 








b b 


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b 








b 




b 






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B 


B 


B 


B 


b 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 




B 






b 


b 


b 






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b 






b b 




b 


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b 


b 


b 






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B 
b 


B 


B 
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b 


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B 


b 
b b 


b 


b 






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b 





















b b 




















b 


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t 


t 


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t 


t 


t 


b 


t 


b b 






t 








t 










t t 


b t 


















b 


b 


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t 


t 


- 


t 


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t 


t 


t 


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b 


b 


b 


b 




















b 




b 


t 


















b 


b 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 




t 




b 


t 




















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t 
















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b 


b 
b 


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t 

t 

t 

t 



89 



Yellow-breasted Chat 

Icteria virens 



Summer Tanager 

Piranga rubra 

LL 41; Nov. 18, 1981; Billings 
n=1 



Scarlet Tanager 

Piranga olivacea 

QLL 3C; July 16, 1991; Emery 
Bay, Hungry Horse Reservoir 
n=6 



Western Tanager 

Piranga ludoviciana 



B 
























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b 


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b 


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t t 

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90 



Tanagers, Grosbeaks 



Rose-breasted Grosbeak 

Pheucticus ludovicianus 



Black-headed Grosbeak 

Pheucticus melanocephalus 



Blue Grosbeak 

Guiraca caerulea 

LL 41; 1975 
n=3 



Lazuli Bunting 

Passerina amoena 



■ t - t t t - - t t t t 
L t_ 

t - t - - 

— ^ ■■ ■ I- ^-^^ ^^.^^ _^^^ ^^___ _^_^ _^_^ 

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b 


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b 


b 


b b 




b 














b 
b 


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b 
b 


B 
b 


B 


b 


b 


B 


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b 


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b 




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b 


b 


b 












b 






B 
B 


B 


B 


b 
b 


b 


b 
b 


b 


b 


B 
b 


b 


b 
b 






b 
b 


b 


b 
b 


B 
B 


b 
b 


b b 
B 


b 
b 


b b 
b 


b 
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b 


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b b 


b 




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b 


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b b 
















b 


b 


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b b 


b 


b 


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b 


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b 


b 
t 


b 


b 


b 




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b 


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b 












B 


B 


b 


b 


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b 


b 


b 


b 


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B 


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B 




b 


b 










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b 






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b 


b b 


b 


B 




B 




b 


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b 


B B 


b 


B 


b 


b 


b 










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b b 


b b 


b 










B 












b 


b 

















91 



Indigo Bunting 

Passer ina cyanea 



Dickcissel 

Spiza americana 

n=14 TES 

Green-tailed Towhee 

Pipilo chlorurus 

Rufous-sided Towhee 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus 

Uw 

WW 

--W--W 



t b b b 

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t t - - - - b - - t - 

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t t - b b b - b 



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92 



Towhees, Sparrows 



American Tree Sparrow 

Spizella arborea 



UW-wUUw-WU-w 

wWUWU-UwW--w 

UWWWwwwUUw- 

-WWWwWWWww 

WW 



Chipping Sparrow 

Spizella passerina 



-w- 



Clay-colored Sparrow 

Spizella pallida 



Brewer's Sparrow 

Spizella breweri 



tttttttttttt 
t_ t_ 

t t t T 

ttttttttttt 

t_ t_ 

ttttttttttt 
t_ t_ 

ttttttttt 
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b 


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b 


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b 




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b 






b 








t b 


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b b 


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B B 


b t 


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b B 


b 


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b 

















93 



Field Sparrow 

Spizella pusilla 



Vesper Sparrow 

Pooecetes gramineus 



Lark Sparrow 

Chondestes grammacus 



Black-throated Sparrow 

Amphispiza bilineata 

LL 25; May 21, 1975; Missoula 

n=2 



t B 
B 
b 



b 

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b b 

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b b 



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B 
b 



B 



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B 

b b 



t b 

B 
b t 



B 



B 



b 
b 
t b 



t - - - 



94 



Sparrows 



Sage Sparrow 

Amphispiza belli 

LL 35; June, 1984; 

Fallon County 
n=10 TES 



Lark Bunting 

Calamospiza melanocorys 



Savannah Sparrow 

Passerculus sandwichensis 



Baird's Sparrow 

Ammodramus bairdii 



- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


t 


- 


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- 


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95 



Grasshopper Sparrow 

Ammodramus savannarum 



Le Conte's Sparrow 

Ammodramus leconteii 

QLL 28A; Oct. 6, 1990; 

Lake Helena 
n=17 TES 



Sharp-tailed Sparrow 

Ammodramus caudacutus 

LL 12; Sept., 1943; 
Medicine Lake 
n=2 



Fox Sparrow 

Passerella iliaca 



WW---W- 



---W-- 







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b 


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b 


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96 



Sparrows 



Song Sparrow 

Melospiza melodia 



WW---W---W-- 

www-w-u 

WWWW---W-W- 
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Lincoln's Sparrow 

Melospiza lincolnii 



Swamp Sparrow 

Melospiza georgiana 

LL 41; Oct. 24, 1981 
n=8 

-W 

White-throated Sparrow 

Zonotrichia albicollis 

WW 

-w 

www 

--WW-W 



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t 

t t t t - 

t - - - - 

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t 
t - - t - t t - t - - 

t t 

t t t t t - - t t t t 

t t t - t - - - t 
I I I I I i 

I ■ 



97 



Golden-crowned Sparrow 

Zonotrichia atricapilla 

QLL 9C; May 13, 1988; 

Bowdoin NUR 
n=4 

White-crowned Sparrow 

Zonotrichia leucophrys 

WW w 

--W 

W--W 

---W-w 

-w 



_t 

t 

t 

t 



b 




b b 




















B 


b 


B 


b 


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t 


t 




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t 






b 


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b 

t 


b 
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b 


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b 


t 


t 


t 


t 








b 


t 


















b 


b 


b 


b 


B 


B 


t 


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t 


t 


t 




t 




t t 






















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b 


b b 




t 














B 


B 


B 


B 
B 


B 


b 


t 


t 


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t 








b 


B 






















b 


6 

















Harris' Sparrow 

Zonotrichia querula 



WW---W--W--W 

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- 


t 

















Dark-eyed Junco 

J unco hyemalis 

SI 



WWW-W---WW-W 

WWW-w-W w 

UUUU--WUUM- 

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b 


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B B 






















b 


B 

















98 



Longspurs 



McCown's Longspur 

Calcarius mccownii 



Lapland Longspur 

Calcarius lapponicus 



-W--WWW--WW- 

-W-ww-W-WwW 

--wUww-wwww 

--Uwww-WWU 



Smith's Longspur 

Calcarius pictus 

LL 44; Sept. 15, 1977; 



Broadus 
n=4 



Chestnut-collared Longspur 

Calcarius ornatus 









b 


b 


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99 



Snow Bunting 

Plectrophenax nivalis 



UWWUWVM^UUWU 

wUUUUUWUUUwU 

mUUW-wUwwww 

wmUwwwUVAJ- 

WU 



Bobolink 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 



Red-winged Blackbird 

Agelaius phoeniceus 



UUU-U-w-WUw- 

-Ww — w w 

WWwW — www- 

--WW-W 

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Western Meadowlark 

Sturnella neglecta 



Ww--W — WW-- 
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U--U-W-WWWW 

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100 



Blackbirds 



Yellow-headed Blackbird 

Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus 



■w 

U 

w- 



Rusty Blackbird 

Euphagus carolinus 



-W--W---WW-- 

w 

— w 

--WW-W---W 



Brewer's Blackbird 

Euphagus cyanocephalus 



wwWw w — 

w-W 

W--W WW 

--WW-W-W-- 



Common Crackle 

Quiscalus quiscula 



■ W-- 

w w 

--WW-W 



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- 


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101 



Brown-headed Cowbird 

Molothrus ater 



Orchard Oriole 

Icterus spurius 



Northern Oriole 

Icterus galbula 

SI 



B 
b 


B 
b 


b b 

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t 
















b 












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■ 


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■ 


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t 


t 








- 


- 

















Fringillidae 



b 


B 
B 


b 


b 
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b 


B 
B 


B 


b 
b 


B 
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B 
B B 


B 


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b 
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b 
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b 
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b 

b 


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b 
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b 
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b 






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b 
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b 
b 






- 


t 

















Brambling 

Fringilla montifringilla 

LL 15; Dec. 3, 1978; Swan lake 
n=1 






102 



Orioles, Finches 



Rosy Finch 

Leucosticte arctoa 

SI 



WUW-UWW-Ww-w 

-UwWwUww---U 

w-UUWw-UWw- 

-WUUwWWWUW 

WW 



Pine Grosbeak 

Pinicola enucleator 



WWW-w-w-Ww-- 

WWW-wWW-w--- 

WWWW--W---W 

wUVAVwW 

-U 



Purple Finch 

Carpodacus purpureas 



■Ww-- 



-w w- 

--WW-W--- 



Cassin's Finch 

Carpodacus cassinii 



www W-- 

WWW---W 

www 

--WW-W-W- 
-w 







b B 












t 








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b 


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b 
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B 
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b 
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b 
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b 

















103 



House Finch 

Carpodacus mexicanus 



wU ■ 

-W--W-W 

WWW • 

--WW-W — 



Red Crossbill 

Loxia curvirostra 



WWWW--W-W--- 

WWW-WWw W 

wwww-w w 

--W--W---W 
-W 



White-winged Crossbill 

Loxia leucoptera 



WWW H- 

-ww w- 

w-w 

--W--W-- 



Common Redpoll 

Carduelis flammea 



WWWWWWwwWWww 

WWWWWWWW-WwW 

WWWW-wwwww- 

WWWWwWWWWW 

-w 



B B 

b 
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b 
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b 

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b 





b 


t 




















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- 



















104 



Finches 



Hoary Redpoll 

Carduelis hornemanni 



Www WW-- 

-w w w 

W-WW--W 

--W-WW-W-- 



Pine Siskin 

Carduelis pin us 



WWWW--WWWU-- 

WVAJ-W-W 

WWWW-UW--W- 
-WUW-WUW-U 
-W 



American Goldfinch 

Carduelis tristis 



vw 

Www-w 

Wwww 

-wWW-W- 



Evening Grosbeak 

Coccothraustes vespertinus 



UWW-wUw-UU-w 

www-www-w--- 

WWWW-W-W--W 
-wWW-W-Ww- 



tt tt-t 

t_ t t_ 

t - - t - t - - - - t 

t t t t t - t - - t - 



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b b 










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B 


B 


b 


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b 


t 


t 


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105 



Passeridae 



House Sparrow 

Passer domesticus 

(introduced) 



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106 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

American Ornithologist's Union. 1983. Checklist of North American Birds, 6th 
edition. Allen Press. Lawrence, KS. 877 pp. 

AOU. 1985. Thirty-fifth supplement to the AOU checklist of North American birds. 
Auk 102: 680-686. 

AOU. 1987. Thirty-sixth supplement to the AOU checklist of North American Birds. 
Auk 104: 591-596. 

AOU. 1989. Thirty-seventh supplement to the AOU checklist of North American 
birds. Auk 106: 532-538. 

AOU. 1991. Thirty-eighth supplement to the AOU checklist of North American birds. 
Auk 108: 750-754. 

Dorn, J.L and R.D. Dorn. 1990. Wyoming Birds. Mountain Press. Cheyenne. 138 
pp. 

Ehrlich, P.R., D.S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1988. The Birder's Handbook. Simon and 
Schuster, Inc. 785 pp. 

Findholt, S., B. Oakleaf, and B. Long (eds.). 1981. Wyoming Mammal Atlas, working 
draft. Wyoming Game and Fish Dept. Cheyenne. 

Kingery H. (ed.). 1987. Colorado Bird Distribution Latilong Study. Colo. Div. 
Wildlife. Denver. 81 pp. 

Oakleaf, B., H. Downing, B. Raynes, M. Raynes, and O.Scott. 1982. Wyoming Avian 
Atlas. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne. 

Skaar, D., D. Flath, and LS. Thompson. 1985. Montana Bird Distribution, Third 
Edition. Monograph No. 3, Montana Acad. Sciences, Supplement to 
Proceedings, Vol 44, 1985. 70 pp. 

Skaar, P.D. 1980. Montana Bird Distribution. Published by the author, Bozeman. 

Skaar, P.D. 1969. Birds of the Bozeman Latilong. Published by the author, 
Bozeman. 

Stephens, D.A. and S.H. Sturts. 1991. Idaho Bird Distribution. Spec. Publ. No. 11, 
Idaho Museum of Natural History, Pocatello. 76 pp. 

Thompson, LS. 1982. Distribution of Montana Amphibians, Reptiles, and 
Mammals. Montana Audubon Council, Helena. 24 pp. 



107 



Contributors to the Fourth Edition 

More than 1000 Records: 

Daniel Casey, Daniel Sullivan 

501 - 1000 Records: 

Lou Bruno, Charles M. Carlson, David Center, Harriet M. Marble, Terry 
McEneaney 

101 - 500 Records: 

Dwight Bergeron, Marcy M. Bishop, Clifford V. Davis, Kristi Dubois, Robert L. Eng, 
G. J. Frazier, S. J. Gniadek, W. Edward Harper, John Hartman, Sally Hejl, C. J. 
Hoff, George Holton, Judy Hoy, Elly G. Jones, Larry Malone, D. L Martin, Fritz 
Prellwitz, Montana Natural Heritage Program, Sue Reel, W. P. Roney, Michael T. 
Schwitters, Don Skaar, D. Tribby, S. D. Weller, J. Young, Mike Young. 

1-100 Records: 

Peter Achuff, Connie Akers, Kathleen Anderson, Margaret Anderson, Paul 
Anderson, June Ash, Maria Ash, Rod Ash, Alice Austin, Art Aylesv\/orth, Beth 
Baker, Tim Baker, Janissa Balcomb, Lee Ballard, Jim Barnum, Dale Becker, 
Benton Lake NWR staff, Arnold Bolle, Gordon Brov\/der, James Brown, T. S. 
Burns, Tom Butts, Charles Campbell, Marion Campbell, Suzi Campbell, Joel 
Carlson, Lynn Clark, Jane Collins, Bob Daniels, Jerome DeSanto, Claude 
Demarest, Dave Dickson, Jeffery E. Dobb, Sr., Pat Dolan, Anne Dueker, Joseph 
Engler, David Ewer, Bebe FitzGerald, Dennis Flath, Roger Fliger, S. R. Flores, 
Betsy Follman, Christian Frazza, Sid Frisell, Bill Good, Deb Goslin, Harvey 
Hackett, David Hamilton, Denise Hamilton, D. Hanson, Tom Harris, Barb 
Hazlewood, Rob Hazlewood, D. Heide, J. Heide, Paul Hendricks, Cal Henry, Willis 
Heron, K. L Hicks, Bobby Hoe, John Hofflund, Denver Holt, Martin Holt, Mary 
Holt, Bob Hoy, Peter Hunt, Dick Hutto, Jaimie Ingold, Warren Iverson, Sue 
Jackson, Ron Jenkins, Sara J. Johnson, Cedron Jones, Thomas S. Jones, Connie 
Kay, W. Kerling, Jill King, Craig Knowles, Thomas Komberec, B. Krepps, M. E. 
Krook, Bob Krumm, Douglas Laye, Rose Leach, K. Leichter, Tom Lemke, Cary 
Lund, Jeff Marks, Charles Marlen, Stephen Martin, L. McEvoy, K. McLaughlin, C. 
D. Mitchell, Gerald Mueller, Norma H. Nixon, Larry Nordell, Ted J. Nordhagen, 
Bart O'Gara, Chris Paige, R. L Pearson, J. H. Phelps, Sandy Pletchet, T. Prellwitz, 
J. Regan, Katherine Roberts, James Rogers, A. Roogaard, Vicki Roth, Bill 
Ruediger, Dave Shea, G. Sipe, Jean E. Smith, Kalmar R. Stevenson, Don 
Stoecker, J. M. Story, Karen L. Stutzman, Marjorie Swanson, Jon Swenson, 
Maureen Theilerr, B. Thompson, Gordon Thompson, William L. Thompson, R. A. 
Thorbert, Dorinda Trautman, Dave Trochlell, S. Turman, Jamie Turner, Steven 
Turner, Bob Twist, Virginia Vincent, J. D. Waldo, Robert Wallace, Byron Weber, 
Winton Weydemeyer, Carl Wolf, Dave Worthington, Philip L. Wright, Anne 
Zimmermann. 



108 



Appendix A. List of Threatened, Endangered, and Sensitive Species (TES) 
and species requiring Supplemental Information (SI) 



TES 



SI 



Common Loon 

American White Pelican 

White-faced Ibis 

Trumpeter Swan 

Harlequin Duck 

Bald Eagle 

Northern Goshawk 

Ferruginous Hawk 

Peregrine Falcon 

Whooping Crane 

Snowy Plover 

Piping Plover 

Mountain Plover 

Least Tern 

Flammulated Owl 

Burrowing Owl 

Great Gray Owl 

Boreal Owl 

Black-backed Woodpecker 

Dickcissel 

Sage Sparrow 

Le Conte's Sparrow 



Double-crested Cormorant 
Great Blue Heron' 
Black-crowned Night Heron' 
Mute Swan 
Franklin's Gull' 
Ring-billed Gull' 
California Gull' 
Caspian Tern* 
Common Tern' 
Forster's Tern' 
Eastern Screech-owl 
Western Screech-owl 
Northern Flicker"" 
Cassin's Kingbird 
Yellow-rumped Warbler"" 
Dark-eyed Junco* 
Northern Oriole"" 
Rosy Finch"^ 



TES - Threatened, Endangered or Sensitive species. Please provide information 
on precise location, numbers of individuals, date of observation and details on 
nesting, if any. — --' 

SI - species poorly known; little information on habitat preferences; questions on 
distribution; ""subspecies distribution requested; 'nesting colonies. Please 
provide date of observation, information on precise location, habitat, nesting 
details, if any. 



109 



Appendix B. Neotropical Migratory Bird Species in Montana 



Killdeer 

Mountain Plover 
Marbled Godwit 
Long-billed Curlew 
Wlllet 

Spotted Sandpiper 
Upland Sandpiper 
Turkey Vulture 
Golden Eagle 
Northern Harrier 
Sharp-shinned Hawk 
Cooper's Hawk 
Northern Goshawk 
Broad-winged Hawk 
Red-tailed Hawk 
Swainson's Hawk 
Ferruginous Hawk 
Osprey 

American Kestrel 
Merlin 

Prairie Falcon 
Peregrine Falcon 
Mourning Dove 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo 
Black-billed Cuckoo 
Short-eared Owl 
Long-eared Owl 
Flammulated Owl 
Burrowing Owl 
Common Poorwill 
Common Nighthawk 
Black Swift 
Chimney Swift 
Vaux's Swift 
White-throated Swift 
Black-chinned Hummingbird 
Ruby-throated Hummingbird 
Calliope Hummingbird 
Broad-tailed Hummingbird 
Rufous Hummingbird 
Belted Kingfisher 
Lewis' Woodpecker 
Williamson's Sapsucker 
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 
Red-naped Sapsucker 
Eastern Kingbird 
Cassin's Kingbird 



Western Kingbird 

Great Crested Flycatcher 

Olive-sided Flycatcher 

Eastern Wood-Pewee 

Eastern Phoebe 

Say's Phoebe 

Hammond's Flycatcher 

Dusky Flycatcher 

Least Flycatcher 

Willow Flycatcher 

Cordilleran Flycatcher 

Horned Lark 

Tree Swallow 

Purple Martin 

Violet-green Swallow 

Northern Rough-winged Swallow 

Bank Swallow 

Cliff Swallow 

Barn Swallow 

Brown Creeper 

House Wren 

Marsh Wren 

Sedge Wren 

Rock Wren 

Ruby-crowned Kinglet 

Eastern Bluebird 

Western Bluebird 

Mountain Bluebird 

Townsend's Solitaire 

Veery 

Swainson's Thrush 

Hermit Thrush 

American Robin 

Loggerhead Shrike 

Northern Mockingbird 

Gray Catbird 

Sage Thrasher 

Sprague's Pipit 

Water Pipit 

Cedar Waxwing 

Yellow-throated Vireo 

Bell's Vireo 

Solitary Vireo 

Red-eyed Vireo 

Warbling Vireo 

Tennessee Warbler 

Orange-crowned Warbler 



110 



Nashville Warbler 
Black-and-white Warbler 
Yellow-rumped Warbler 
Townsend's Warbler 
Yellow Warbler 
MacGillivray's Warbler 
Wilson's Warbler 
Ovenbird 

Northern Waterthrush 
Common Yellowthroat 
American Redstart 
Yellow-breasted Chat 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak 
Black-headed Grosbeak 
Lazuli Bunting 
Indigo Bunting 
Dickcissel 

Rufous-sided Towhee 
Green-tailed Towhee 
Grasshopper Sparrow 
Baird's Sparrow 
Vesper Sparrow 
Savannah Sparrow 
Lark Sparrow 
Sage Sparrow 
Chipping Sparrow 
Clay-colored Sparrow 
Brewer's Sparrow 
Dark-eyed Junco 
White-crowned Sparrow 
Fox Sparrow 
Song Sparrow 
Swamp Sparrow 
Lincoln's Sparrow 
Chestnut-collared Longspur 
McCown's Longspur 
Lark Bunting 
Bobolink 

Western Meadowlark 
Red-winged Blackbird 
Yellow-headed Blackbird 
Brewer's Blackbird 
Orchard Oriole 
Northern Oriole 
Western Tanager 
Scarlet Tanager 
Pine Siskin 
American Goldfinch 
Cassin's Finch 



111 



Appendix C. Hypothetical Species List 

Some of these sighting are very old and probably should not be considered as 
species likely to be found in Montana. They have been carried over from the Third 
Edition pending further review by the editors and the verification committee. The 
newer records have not been reviewed by the verification committee and may be 
incorporated into the Fifth Edition. 

Common Eider. L24: 1907. 
Eskimo Curlew. L12: 1858, 1862, 1973. 
Spotted Owl. L2: 1927. L3: 1959, 1976. 
'Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. QLL 3C: 1991. 
Bewick's Wren. LI 5: 1973. L25: 1973. 
Phainopepla. L3 
Bell's Vireo. L12: 1858. 
Blue-winged Warbler. L41: 1984. 
Virginia's Warbler. L37: 1976. 
'Painted Redstart. QLL 25A: 1987. 
'Cardinal. QLL 42C: 1987. 
Painted Bunting. L43: 1978. 

'new since the Third Edition 



112 



Appendix D. Breeding Status Code Definitions 

B Use of the "B" to designate breeding requires "hard evidence." A "B" can be 

hard to get. Do not assume breeding simply by presence or behavior. Use 
the "B" only if one of the following criteria are met. 

1. Occupied nest. Adults entering or leaving nest site in circumstances 
indicating an occupied nest (includes high nests or nest-holes, the contents 
of which cannot be seen) or adult incubating or brooding. 

2. Recently fledged young (of altricial species) incapable of sustained flight, 
or downy young (of precocial species) restricted to the natal area by 
dependence on adults or limited mobility. 

3. Attending young; adult carrying food or fecal sac for young, or feeding 
recently fledged young. 

4. Used nest or eggshells found (Caution: identification must be convincing 
if such records are to be accepted). 

5. Nest with egg(s) which can be clearly identified. The presence of 
cowbird eggs or young is confirmation of breeding for both cowbird and 
host species. 

6. Nest with young, seen or heard, which can be clearly identified. 
b Breeding is supported by circumstantial evidence. 

1. Singing males, pairs or territorial birds observed in suitable nesting 
habitat during the species' breeding season. 

2. Courtship behavior or copulation. 

3. Adults visiting a probable nest site. 

4. Agitation behavior, distraction display, injury feigning, or anxiety calls 
from an adult. 

5. Nest building. 

6. Physiological evidence of breeding (brood patch or eggs in oviduct) 
based on bird in hand. 

t No evidence of breeding. Transients; migrants; or mobile, wide ranging 

species that exhibit no breeding behavior at the time of observation. 

No records 



113 



Appendix E. Rare Bird Report Form 

(For Species Annotated TES, SI, n=) 



Species; 



Observer's Name: 



Date Observed: 



Reporter ' s Name : 



Date Written: 



Other Observers: 



Address: 



Telephone No: 



QLL: 



Nearest Town/Landmark: 



Specific Location: 



_Township Range_ 



Describe the Habitat: 



Section 



Plumage (Circle) Sex M Describe Weather: 

Adult Immature F 

Subadult Juvenal Unk 

Optics Used and Power: 

X Binoculars X Spotting Scope Unaided Eye 



Quality and direction of light 



Distance from Bird: 



Duration of Observation 



Previous Experience with Species? Where and when; 



Discuss How Similar Appearing Species were Eliminated: 



This Report was Written: 



During or right after observation 
_ From memory hrs/ days later. 



Describe the bird you observed. Record only field marks and 
behaviors you actually saw. State size (compared to similar 
size common bird) . Record relevant information such as color, 
body shape, bill, legs, voice, behavior, no. of individuals, 
sex. Use back of form if more space is needed. Please 
include any photos or drawings. Print or type clearly. 



Send your report to: 

Montana Bird Distribution Update 
Natural Heritage Program 
1515 East Sixth Avenue 
Helena, MT 59620 



4th Ed I 1992 



114 



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INDEX 



The last word of the common name is indexed for species found in this book, 
topics and subjects have been included from the text. 



Several 



Avocet 36 

Bittern 12 

Blackbirds 100,101 

Bluebirds 75,76 

Bobolink 100 

Bobwhite 32 

Brambling 102 

Brant 17 

Breeding definitions (B,b) .... 6,113 

Bufflehead 23 

Bunting 91,92,95,100,112 

Canvasback 20 

Cardinal 112 

Catbird 78 

Chat 90 

Chickadees 71.72 

Chukar 29 

Coot 34 

Cormorant 12 

Cowbird 102 

Cranes 34 

Creeper 73 

Crossbills 104 

Crow 70 

Cuckoo 52 

Curlew 38,112 

Dickcissel 92 

Dipper 74 

Dove 51 

Dowitcher 43 

Ducks 17-24 

Dunlin 42 

Eagle 25,28 

Eider 112 

Egret 13 

Falcons 28,29 

Finches 103,104 

Flamingo 7 

Flicker 62 

Flycatchers 63-67 

Gadwall 19 



Garganey 18 

Gnatcatcher 75 

Godwits 39 

Goldeneyes 23 

Goldfinch 105 

Geese 16,17 

Goshawk 26 

Grackle 101 

Grebes 10 

Grosbeaks 91,103,105 

Grouse 30-32 

Gulls 45-49 

Gyrfalcon 29 

Harrier 25 

Hawks 25-27 

Herons 12-14 

Hummingbirds 58,59 

Ibis 14 

Jaegers 44,45 

Jays 69,70 

Junco 98 

Kestrel 28 

Killdeer 36 

Kingbirds 66 

Kingfisher 59 

Kinglets 75 

Kittiwake 48 

Knot 40 

Lark 67 

Latilongs 1,2 

Longspurs 99 

Loons 9 

Magpie 70 

Mallard 18 

Martin 67 

Meadowlark 100 

Mergansers 23,24 

Merlin 28 

Mockingbird 78 

Moorhen 33 

Murrelet 50 



116 



n= 4,6 

Neotropical migrant 5,110 

Nighthawk 56 

Nutcracker 70 

Nuthatches 72 

Oldsquaw 22 

Orioles 102 

Osprey 25 

Ovenbird 87 

Owls 52-56,112 

Partridge 29 

Parula 83 

Pelican 11 

Pewee 63 

Phalarope 44 

Pheasant 30 

Phoebe 65 

Pigeon 51 

Pintail 18 

Pipits 79 

Plovers 34-36 

Poorwill 56 

Prairie-chicken 32 

Ptarmigan 30,31 

Quarter Latilong 2 

Rails 33 

Rare Bird Report Form 114 

Raven 71 

Redhead 20 

Redpolls 104,105 

Redstart 87,112 

Robin 78 

Sanderling 40 

Sandpipers 37-42 

Sapsucker 60,61,112 

Scaups 21 

Scoters 22 

Shoveler 19 

Shrikes 80 

SI definition 4,6 

SI list 109 

Siskin 105 

Snipe 43 

Solitaire 76 

Sora 33 

Sparrows 93-98,106 

Subspecies 3 

Starling 81 



Stilt 36 

Stork 15 

Swallows 67-69 

Swans 15,16 

Swifts 57,58 

TES definition 4,6 

TES list 109 

Tanagers 90 

Teal 17,19 

Terns 49,50 

Thrashers 79 

Thrushes 77,78 

Towhees 92 

Transient status (t) 6,113 

Turkey 32 

Turnstone 39 

Veery 76 

Verification Committee v,3 

Vireos 81,82,112 

Vulture 24 

Warblers 82-89,112 

Waterthrush 88 

Waxwings 80 

Whimbrel 38 

Whip-poor-will 57 

Wigeon 20 

Willet 37 

Winter status (W,w) 6 

Woodcock 43 

Woodpeckers 60-62 

Wrens 73,74,112 

Yellowlegs 37 

Yellowthroat 89 



117 



NOTES 



118 



— Response Form — 

Please tear out, complete, and return to: 

Montana Bird Distribution 
c/o Montana Natural Heritage Program 
1515 E. 6th Ave. 
Helena, MT 59620 

FORMAT 

1. Are the maps in this book intelligible and useful? 



2. Please indicate which format you would prefer for the next edition of this book: 

a. whole latilong records only (no quarters) 

b. same as this book 

c. quarter latilong records only (no centers) 

d. other: 



3. Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the maps of winter records? 



4. Do you have any comments or suggestions regarding the overall size and format of the 
maps and of the whole book? 



DATA 

5. Please indicate what kind of data you would prefer for the next edition of this book: 

a. cumulative records of observations through time, as in the first three editions 

b. only those observations reported since the previous edition (as discussed in the 
text) 

c. other: 



6. Would you recommend any additions to or deletions from the current set of 
"observation types" (B,b,t,w,W)? 



7. Are there other kinds of data that you'd hke to see in the next edition (e.g., spring 
arrivals, fall departures, abundance, habitats)? If yes, please describe. 



GENERAL 

8. How often do you think this book should be updated? 

9. Would you prefer a fancier book (e.g., photos, graphics, nicer design, nicer paper)*; 



10. What can we do or provide to help you send us more data? 



11. How could we improve the text in the book to make it more understandable or useful 
to you? 



12. Anything else? 



We thank the following corporations and agencies 
whose generous contributions made this publication possible 




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WESTERN ENERGY COMPANY 





WESTECH 




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MOriTAFiA riATURAL HERITAGE PROGRAM 



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